First, education level of employees of all categories is rising. Second societal values toward recreational and leisure activities are becoming stronger. The effect of the first change is in the expectations of employees. People want more satisfying and fulfilling work which should match their qualifications and abilities. The impact of the second change is that the passion for non-work is increasing: So, whole one change is pushing towards increased professionalism, the other change is pulling towards leisure-orientation.
Against these backdrops of societal forces influencing the profiles of the employees, the content of the job and the organization processes determine the OC. To sum up, OC is determined by a variety of internal and external factors where internal factors are specific to the organization while external factors refer to a number of societal forces.
Permalink Leave a Comment. December 1, at 5: As our talk on Determinants of Organizational Culture today we are going to discuss on Characteristics of Members and Organizational Size. Personal characteristics of the members of an organization also affect the climate prevailing in the organization. For example an organization with well educated, ambitious and younger employees is likely to have a different OC than an organization with less educated, and less upwardly mobile, older employees.
The former might inculcate an environment of competitiveness, calculated risk-taking, frankness of opinions, etc. In a small sized organization it is much easier to foster a climate for creativity and innovation or to establish a participative king of management with greater stress on horizontal distribution of responsibilities.
On the other hand, in a large organization it is easier to have a more authoritative kind of management with stress on vertical distribution of responsibilities. This in turn leads to distinct environments as has been explained with the help of the concept of System 4 organization. We have now studies seven basic determinants of OC. The lost is not exhaustive but these are the basic internal factors determining the internal environment of an organization.
In our next post we will continue our discussion on Organizational Size. November 29, at 8: A type of difference in health that is closely linked with social or economic disadvantage. Health disparities negatively affect groups of people who have systematically experienced greater social or economic obstacles to health.
These obstacles stem from characteristics historically linked to discrimination or exclusion such as race or ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, gender, mental health, sexual orientation, or geographic location. Other characteristics include cognitive, sensory, or physical disability . When all people have "the opportunity to 'attain their full health potential' and no one is 'disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of their social position or other socially determined circumstance'".
Differences, variations, and disparities in the health achievements of individuals and groups of people . Whether a person can obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services that are needed to make suitable health decisions. Health literacy includes the ability to understand instructions on prescription drug bottles, appointment cards, medical education brochures, doctor's directions, and consent forms.
It also includes the ability to navigate complex health care systems. Health literacy is not simply the ability to read.
It requires a complex group of reading, listening, analytical, and decision-making skills and the ability to apply these skills to health situations . A regression-based measure that is used by scientists and retains the inherent order of categories like education or income but incorporates the population weights of the categories.
The size of each category is taken into account by placing the groups on an axis that reflects the cumulative proportion of the population represented by the ordered groups. The index of disparity can be absolute slope referred to as Slope Index of Inequality or relative slope referred to as Relative Index of Inequality .
Characteristics of a person that may explain health or behavior. Some examples include a person's age or whether a person smokes. When a person or group of people lack human needs because they cannot afford them. Human needs include clean water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing, and shelter. Social Security Administration originally developed the definitions that are used to help calculate and determine poverty.
Families or people with income below a certain limit are considered to be below the poverty level. The complex, integrated, and overlapping social structures and economic systems that are responsible for most health inequities. These social structures and economic systems include the social environment, physical environment, health services, and structural and societal factors. Social determinants of health are shaped by the distribution of money, power, and resources throughout local communities, nations, and the world .
Objectivity is not value neutral, and, therefore, needs to be redefined to factor the biases associated with dominant cultural ideology and the contemporary market of knowledge. At the very least, researchers need to acknowledge a subtle conflict of interest Human societies everywhere have had cultural constructs woven around pregnancy, birth, child rearing, marriage, sex and death.
Many of these continue to influence the communities even after acculturation and rural-urban or transcontinental migration. Religion has also a great influence of these practices and may create remarkable inter-group differences within a same regional or ethnic identity. With their merits and demerits, these have a significant bearing on reproductive and child health and need to be factored while designing health programmes that facilitate integration of traditional and modern practices.
While the list of health compromising practices is very long and this may be because of a particular orientation and disease-centric nature of enquiry and evidence-base, the good practices are also sizeable in number and demand serious documentation. Between these two distinct categories, there is a gray zone of cultural practices where one can hardly exercise any measure of certitude. Use and abuse of a wide range of tobacco products and alcohol at the scale is also goaded by the level of cultural acceptability these products enjoy in the public space.
This may vary across different sections of society and gender. In several regions, there is virtually no resistance to tobacco in spite of awareness about its harmful effects. Societal acceptability for alcohol abuse is a huge global problem, and its health outcomes are of pandemic proportions In developing countries, maternal and child health pays a very heavy price for habitual alcohol abuse by their men 12 , Already meagre resources are depleted, households gradually fall in a debt trap, men die earlier, children are left to mothers and there is no one to care for the mother.
To an extent, this is happening in developed parts of the world as well Gender violence; violence against children, weak, poor and voiceless people; violence amongst youth; and road rage are some of the phenomena that cannot be sustained unless supported by some degree of cultural acquiescence. Several societies continue to associate violence with youth, adventure and masculinity; events of domestic violence, and even rape are not found worthy of reporting; and inexplicable mass violence is systematically rationalised by many through ideological constructs is essentially cultural and needs to be examined in that light 15 , Driven largely by profit, this can initiate a process of mass disempowerment through misinformed decision making.
Health education and social mobilization campaigns sometimes face stiff opposition from cultural beliefs of target audience but the same people look increasingly vulnerable to market forces much against their cultural diktats. This is chiefly visible in: Culture may hold explanatory powers of variable strengths in different situations, but can also be an attractive paradigm to epidemiologists in their quest for unifying explanations for seemingly diverse situations.
The logic that cultural factors are part of the wider gamut of social determinants may prove to be specious. The contemporary paradigm of social determinants is inadequately equipped to deal with a seemingly more complex web of cultural causations. We may need a dedicated space to examine and intervene in this rather amorphous area of cultural epidemiology.
A culture is a set value of norms among a certain group of people, and takes them together to constitute the way these people live. In different countries of the world, culture is usually different. However, there are various known determinants of culture, and social structure is one of them.
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Popular Culture & High Culture Popular culture is the culture that prevails in a modern society, adopted and appealing to large masses of people, normally the middle class citizens. Culture consists of the customs and civilizations of a particular group. This study was aimed at investigating basic determinants of culture that contribute to differentiate culture of export-based textile organizations from one another. For this concern, different factors (degree of frankness, language, attire, working hours, work experience, activities other than work.
As our talk on Determinants of Organizational Culture today we are going to discuss on Characteristics of Members and Organizational Size Characteristics of Members. DETERMINANTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE At the very onset of this topic, it is useful to distinguish determinants and dimensions of OC. Determinants are the causes, while dimensions are the components of OC.