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HIV and Aids in Africa: A Growing Epidemic 4. Why was Africa colonised in the years ? Famine in Africa 6. Racism In South Africa 7. Conflict Prevention in Africa: Etiology and control of common scab on potatoes in South Africa 9.

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Here is a list of the most popular essay topics on Africa: The comparison of the severest food crises in the later history reveals that all were preceded by drought or other extreme weather events. This resulted to poor or failed harvests which in turn led to food scarcity and high prices of the available food Harvest Help Pests, Livestock Diseases and Agricultural Problems.

In addition to extreme weather events, many failed harvests in the sub-Saharan countries were also caused by pests such as desert locusts.

Cattle diseases and other agricultural problems such as erosion, soil infertility, have played a major role in food the increase level of hunger Harvest Help The drought and extreme weather in regions affected by food crises in the recent decades could be a result of climate change, especially in the West and East Africa which have problems with recurrent extreme droughts Harvest Help Wars and military conflicts worsen food insecurity in the sub-Saharan countries.

They may not be directly responsible for food crises but they exacerbate scarcity of food and often prevent the aid workers from reaching the most affected people Harvest Help A good example would be the Democratic Republic of Congo DRC , where most of the government funds are used to purchase arms and ammunitions for war instead of improving the agricultural policies for increased food supply even to sustain the military soldiers.

Corruption and Political Instability. The international community has always send help in the form of food supplies and other means which saved millions of lives in the affected regions. However, the international aid often did not reach the most vulnerable populations due to a high level of corruption and political instability in many African countries Harvest Help The aid that comes in form of money is highly fungible.

Many African governments encourage production of the so-called cash crops, the income from which is used to import food. As a result, countries which depend on cash crops are at high risk of food crisis because they do not produce enough food to feed the population Harvest Help The disease which is a serious public health concern in the sub-Saharan Africa worsens food insecurity in two ways.

Firstly, it reduces the available workforce in agriculture and secondly, it puts an additional burden on poor households Harvest Help Poor African countries have the highest growth rate in the world which puts them at increased risk of food crises. For example, the population of Niger increased from 2.

According to some estimations, Africa will produce enough food for only about a quarter population by if the current growth rate will continue Harvest Help The focus by most African governments has been to open up markets in the hope that their people will benefit.

Study shows that the projected gains of world trade liberalization tend to be minimal in Sub-Saharan Africa and that the income gains from trade liberalization will go to countries with a competitive advantage in the markets concerned Mwaniki Each country is responsible for its own problems Nkuepo The lack of an active and constructive cooperation is an obstacle to the trade between African countries and their development Nkuepo There are about 30 Regional Trade agreements in Africa and their objectives are to foster trade and investment relations among member countries Nkuepo Another objective is to remove the tariffs and other impediments to intra-regional trade flows Nkuepo However, governments continue to restrict cross border policies, high transport cost and price instability Nkuepo Definition of Foreign Aid Foreign aid consists of all resources which can be physical goods, skills and technical know-how, financial grants or loans transferred by donors to recipients Riddell There are three types of aid: Dimensions of Food Aid in the Sub-Saharan Africa Food aid has been viewed as an important resources for development and for emergencies in the sub-Saharan Africa.

However m there are several risks attached to the reliance of food aid Shaw Out of the 46 countries designated by the United Nations UN as least-developed ,32 countries come from the sub-Saharan Africa Shaw It is the only part of the world currently facing widespread chronic food insecurity, as well as threat of famine Shaw Hunger is both a cause and effects of extreme poverty and prevents the poor from taking advantage of the development opportunities Shaw Therefore the eradication of hunger in ensuring that the victims have access to food is a vital step in alleviating poverty and inequality Shaw There are projections made by organizations such as the Food and Agriculture Organization FAO ,indicate that the sub-Saharan countries will need to import more food in the new millennium Shaw However, the region lacks the foreign exchange to import their food requirements on commercial terms.

Therefore, food aid or aid for food will therefore be needed to bridge the gap Shaw Food aid is divided into three categories which include: Emergency relief during natural and man-made disasters, Project aid in support of specific development projects, Program aid for balance of payments and budget support.

The emergency food aid represents a much higher proportion of the cereal food aid to the sub-Saharan Africa than to other developing countries Shaw Recipients and Donors About 48 countries in the sub-Saharan region receive food aid Shaw However, many of these countries have only small amounts of emergency relief. This has mainly due to the severe drought and man-made disasters Shaw Does Foreign Aid Work? Aid has become part of the entertainment industry in the media, film stars rock legends and political figures.

This shows how aid has become a cultural commodity Moyo According to the western countries, food aid has been viewed as an important but undervalued resource for development in the sub-Saharan Africa Shaw The continuous reliance on this aid has risks attached to it Shaw Reasons Why Aid is failing in Sub-Saharan Africa In the past 40 years, at least 12 developing countries have experienced a phenomenal economic growth Moyo There are several reasons that have accounted for why foreign aid has not worked in the sub-Saharan countries.

In sub-Saharan Africa, natural resource dependency has proved to be a development curse rather than a blessing. Most of these countries squander much of their natural resources in questionable investment in outright theft, for example countries rich in oil Nigeria, Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo DRC Moyo This is due to the fact that colonial powers delineated nations, established political structures and fashioned bureaucracies. These structures were fundamentally incompatible with the way of life of indigenous populations Moyo The arbitrarily drawn borders would always make it difficult for the sub-Saharan countries to stand on their feet economically and politically Moyo Cultural Cultural norms, social or religious beliefs have been cited as the reasons for the differences in development between people Moyo Africa is viewed as a child who is unable to develop on its own.

The trouble with the aid -model is that Africa is fundamentally kept in the perpetual child-like state Moyo Institutional The absence of a strong, transparent and credible public institutions are the reasons as to why aid is failing in Africa.

David Lands argues that the ideal growth and development model is one guaranteed by political institutions Moyo Food insecurity and the impact which foreign aid has brought towards Ethiopia. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa. Its proximity to the Middle East and Europe, Together with its easy access to the major ports of the region, enhances its international trade Anthro Covering an area of approximately 1. Ethiopia is home to more than 80 ethnic groups and similar number of languages, the Dominant religions being Christian and Islam.

The Federal Government is responsible for national defense, foreign relations and general policy of common interest and benefits Anthro The Federal States comprise nine autonomous states vested with powers for self-administration.

Members of both councils are democratically elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term Anthro A majority of the people live in the rural areas and rely on agriculture as their primary source of livelihood. The main agricultural products are cereals, potatoes, oilseeds,coffee,sugarcane ,cut flower Braun and Olofimbunyi The Causes of Hunger in Ethiopia 3. The climate variability is not new in Ethiopia given its diverse agr0- ecological zones with variety of micro-climates and weather patterns Glopolis Ethiopia was expected to suffer severely from increasing unpredictable weather that will likely bring drought and flood erratically and in higher frequencies ,further degrade natural resources and compromise agricultural production Glopolis Therefore the effects of climate change are a threat to the farmers.

The extreme climate variation is likely to worsen as well as many existing environmental problems including soil erosion, deforestation, drought, over- grazing and deforestation Glopolis Land Grabs Over the past few years, there has been a surge of interest in foreign investments in agriculture in many African countries Glopolis The increases pressure and competition over land, including water and other natural resources in rural areas may hinder opportunity of the poor and hungry people from accessing these natural resources Glopolis Land is not only an essential commodity for food production ,but an economic asset and it represents historical ,cultural and spiritual issue to local population Glopolis Population growth is often considered a major cause of food shortage in the globe.

Population pressure has become a factor in accelerating food insecurity in situations where all accessible land is fully under cultivation and failure to improve upon the old methods of cultivation and lastly, the opportunity for alternative employment are absent Balcha In Ethiopia, the population growth is to the point where its demand has begun to exceed the sustainable yields of local forests, grasslands or crop land it directly or indirectly consumes the resource base itself Balcha This reduces food production and incomes, triggering a downward spiral in a process of demographic trap Balcha The impact of war, a good example would be the border conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea in , has majorly affected the rural economy and the rural environment Balcha Some of the negative impacts include: Forced conscription of young men into the army disrupts the productive capacities of rural households Balcha It has been also observed that soldiers tend to loot and plunder the resource of the rural population in order to maintain themselves Balcha Analysis of Food aid in Ethiopia Ethiopia has been receiving a large amount of food aid for the last few decades Gelan The most common ways of receiving food aid to famine- stricken areas has been through imports and distributing it freely to the needy population Gelan This method has saved quite a number of people in regions where drought has often escalated into catastrophic famines Gelan However, according to Moyo , aid is slowly retrogressing the economic growth of developing countries.

The volume of food aid donated to Ethiopia is about , tons of cereals per year Gelan There has been two major areas of concern in the area of food aid in Ethiopia over the differences between the composition of food aid and that domestic production Gelan To begin with, large proportions of food aid to Ethiopia has been cereals.

Disincentive effects may result from targeted food aid for various reasons PANE


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Free Africa papers, essays, and research papers. Negative Affects of Imperialism in Africa in the 19th Century - Throughout history, imperialism by one nation on another has had many negative influences on the nation being colonized.

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A factor contributing to Africa's inability to manage itself effectively is the colonial economic system, which has been thrust prematurely upon Africa, and which has relegated the African economies to a peripheral third 3/5(6). Essay on Africa Words | 2 Pages. circumstances. One of these areas that they profited from was the kingdom of Kongo. Kongo was a major Bantu-speaking kingdom astride the Congo River in west-central Africa, probably founded in the 14th century.

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Free Essay: African Cultures Africa has more than languages native to its continent. African cultures are so diverse that they are different from any. This essay will argue that racism was indeed functional to capitalism in South Africa however this article will further argue that capitalisms main .