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Natural and Man-Made Disaster and their Impact on Environment

Human contributions

❶Due to the extreme low pressure in the centre, more and more air rushes inwards and it grows to a considerable size and intensity.

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English essay on kedarnath disaster in hindi. English words essay on disaster management. Another cyclone in killed more than one lakh people. The cyclone that hit Orissa in , is the worst recorded natural disaster in India. Even an advanced country like America recorded more than 10, deaths and huge financial losses when New Orleans was hit by a hurricane named Katrina, during August Cyclones cause devastation when they hit the landmass in the form of very strong winds, heavy rains and storm tides.

Widespread damage in the form of uprooted trees, blown-off roof tops, standing crops, injuries and death to humans and animals. The occurrence of cyclones is a natural phenomenon, over which humans have no control, hence it cannot be prevented.

However, some scientists have speculated that rise in global warming may cause an increased occurrences of cyclones. The devastating effects of cyclones can only be controlled and mitigated through some effective policies such as use of advanced technology, hazard reduction initiatives and relief measures. Checking the spread of epidemic water borne diseases as cyclones are generally accompanied by flooding.

Landslides refer to a rapid down-slope movement of rocks or soil mass under the force of gravity. It is also known as slope failure and mass wasting.

Landslides may be typed as mudflow where there is down-slope movement of soil and debris flow, which is the down-slope movement of coarse material and rocks.

Landslides may occur when water from rain and melting snow, seeps through the earth on a sloppy surface and encounters a layer of loose, unstable material such as clay. Landslides mostly occur on unstable hillsides by the action of rain or snow that seep through the soils and rocks Figs.

This results in the sliding of earth and rock masses down the hill slopes. These are further triggered due to deforestation and human encroachment on unstable slopes.

All the hilly regions of our country are prone to landslides. It is a type of landslide involving a large mass of snow, ice and rock debris that slides and fall rapidly down a mountainside. Avalanches are initiated when a mass of snow and ice begins to rapidly move downhill because of the overload caused due to a large volume of new snowfall. This result in internal changes of the snow pack, producing zones of weakness along which fissure occurs.

Landslides, though local in nature, occur quite often in many parts of the world. Landslides occur in the hilly regions; the Himalayan region in India is particularly prone to landslides. Every year landslides occur, especially during the monsoon season and cause much damage to life and property. For example, Malpa landslide in in the Kumaon hills, took the lives of many pilgrims who were going to Mansarovar in Tibet. Though landslides are a natural phenomenon and may occur without human interference, in certain cases human activities like deforestation, mining, etc.

Landslides can be controlled, to some extent, by adopting initiatives, such as providing slope support and minimizing human encroachment. By building retaining walls made of concrete, gabions stone filled wire blocks and wooden and steel beams, etc. By preventing human encroachment in the form of buildings, roads, agriculture, grazing, etc.

Man-made disasters are the result of carelessness or human errors during technological and industrial use. The disasters are in the form of accidents, which occur all of a sudden and take a huge toll on life and property. Mostly such disasters cause injuries, diseases and casualties where they occur.

These are much larger in scale and are the result of technology failures or industrial accidents. Such disasters affect both local population and may even cover a much larger area. Industrial disasters result due to accidental leakage of water or air pollutants.

Many of the chemicals are extremely toxic and carcinogenic which affect the human population in an adverse way. Some people die instantly while others are crippled for whole life in the form of blindness, paralysis and many other chronic diseases. Leakage of toxic chemicals from the industries and accidents in the nuclear reactors has short-term and long-term effects on the environment and human health. Short-term effects on human health relate to casualties and diseases like blindness, cancer, paralysis, heart trouble, gastric and respiratory abnormalities.

Long-term effects include genetic imbalances in humans and its impact on the future generations. Soil and water sources also remain polluted for long durations of time. Man-made disasters can be minimized to a large extent by adopting the following measures: Applying wet cloth over the mouth and nose in case of gas leakages minimizes the health hazards.

MIC gas is used as an ingredient in pesticides. It leaked from the factory and formed the deadly cloud over Bhopal. People living in slums in the vicinity of the factory were the most affected and more than people were killed, half of them due to direct exposure and other half due to after affects.

MIC is a colourless gas which causes severe irritation, violent coughing, swelling of the lungs, bleeding and death due to direct inhalation. It also caused loss of eye-sight in more than people. More than 50, people were affected with respiratory, eye, gastric, neurological and gynaecological problems Figs. Another technological disaster is due to the potential damages of nuclear fallout. An example is the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster. It is the worst nuclear disaster recorded in a nuclear power plant.

This nuclear power plant had four reactors of megawatt each for electricity generation. A sudden power surge resulted in two explosions, which destroyed the reactor core and blasted a large hole in the roof of the reactor building. The Radioactive debris moved up through that hole to heights of 1 km. Approximately to million curies of radiation radioactive isotopes of iodine and caesium escaped into the atmosphere.

To reduce emissions, the rescue team bombarded the reactor with 5, metric tonnes of shielding material consisting of lead, boron, sand and clay. Soviet officials placed the toll of human lives to However, according to western estimates, people were killed.

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Aug 08,  · A disaster is a hazard resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. Disasters fall into two major categories. These include man made and natural All Essay.

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Types of disasters Natural disaster Man made disaster Natural disaster A natural disaster is a consequence when a natural hazard affects humans and/or the built environment. Eg: earthquake, flood, landslides, volcanic eruptions, floods and cyclones are all natural hazards that kill thousands of people and destroy billions of dollars of habitat and property each year.

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Man Made Disasters. Essay on “MAN-MADE CALAMITIES V/S NATURAL CALAMITIES” People of the world have always faced both types of disasters, natural as well as man-made. Man-made disasters were not prevalent in ancient times. Man-made disasters are the . Nov 25,  · free encyclopedia Anthropogenic hazards or human-made hazards can result in the form of a human-made disaster. In this case, anthropogenic means threats having an element of human intent, negligence, or error; or involving a failure of a human- made system.

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Disaster Ruins from the San Francisco earthquake, remembered as one of the worst natural disasters in United States history A disaster is a natural or man-made (or Words 3 Pages. Disaster is a very common occurrence to the human society. Though its form may be diverse, it has been a challenge for society across castes, creeds, communities and countries. Disasters mainly divided into two most important categories. These include manmade and natural disasters.