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❶Born in in Woolsthorpe, England, Sir Isaac Newton began developing his influential theories on light, calculus and celestial mechanics while on break from Cambridge University. Click here to learn more or change your cookie settings.

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Beyond the Big Bang: Albert Einstein
Isaac newton research paper keshav

Known for his temperamental defense of his work, Newton engaged in heated correspondence with Hooke before suffering a nervous breakdown and withdrawing from the public eye in In the following years, he returned to his earlier studies on the forces governing gravity and dabbled in alchemy.

In , English astronomer Edmund Halley paid a visit to the secluded Newton. Upon learning that Newton had mathematically worked out the elliptical paths of celestial bodies, Halley urged him to organize his notes. Principia propelled Newton to stardom in intellectual circles, eventually earning universal acclaim as one of the most important works of modern science.

With his newfound influence, Newton opposed the attempts of King James II to reinstitute Catholic teachings at English Universities, and was elected to represent Cambridge in Parliament in He moved to London permanently after being named warden of the Royal Mint in , earning a promotion to master of the Mint three years later.

In , he was knighted by Queen Anne of England. In the meantime, German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz formulated his own mathematical theories and published them in Researchers later concluded that both men likely arrived at their conclusions independent of one another. Newton was also an ardent student of history and religious doctrines, his writings on those subjects compiled into multiple books that were published posthumously. Having never married, Newton spent his later years living with his niece at Cranbury Park, near Winchester, England.

He died on March 31, , and was buried in Westminster Abbey. A giant even among the brilliant minds that drove the Scientific Revolution, Newton is remembered as a transformative scholar, inventor and writer.

He eradicated any doubts about the heliocentric model of the universe by establishing celestial mechanics, his precise methodology giving birth to what is known as the scientific method.

Although his theories of space-time and gravity eventually gave way to those of Albert Einstein , his work remains the bedrock on which modern physics was built. We strive for accuracy and fairness. But if you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Considered the father of modern science, Galileo Galilei made major contributions to the fields of physics, astronomy, cosmology, mathematics and philosophy. He invented an improved telescope that let him observe and describe the moons of Jupiter, the rings of Saturn, The German-born physicist Albert Einstein developed the first of his groundbreaking theories while working as a clerk in the Swiss patent office in Bern.

After making his name with four scientific articles published in , he went on to win worldwide fame for his general theory Enlightenment thinkers in Britain, During Newton's lifetime, the study of chemistry was still in its infancy, so many of his experimental studies used esoteric language and vague terminology more typically associated with alchemy and occultism.

However, Newton's contemporary and fellow Royal Society member, Robert Boyle , had already discovered the basic concepts of modern chemistry and began establishing modern norms of experimental practice and communication in chemistry, information which Newton did not use. Much of Newton's writing on alchemy may have been lost in a fire in his laboratory, so the true extent of his work in this area may have been larger than is currently known. Newton also suffered a nervous breakdown during his period of alchemical work, possibly due to some form of chemical poisoning possibly from mercury , lead , or some other substance.

Newton's writings suggest that one of the main goals of his alchemy may have been the discovery of the philosopher's stone a material believed to turn base metals into gold , and perhaps to a lesser extent, the discovery of the highly coveted Elixir of Life.

Some practices of alchemy were banned in England during Newton's lifetime, due in part to unscrupulous practitioners who would often promise wealthy benefactors unrealistic results in an attempt to swindle them.

The English Crown , also fearing the potential devaluation of gold, should the philosopher's stone actually be discovered, made penalties for alchemy very severe. In some cases the punishment for unsanctioned alchemy would include the public hanging of an offender on a gilded scaffold while adorned with tinsel and other unspecified items.

Due to the threat of punishment and the potential scrutiny he feared from his peers within the scientific community, Newton may have deliberately left his work on alchemical subjects unpublished. Newton was well known as being highly sensitive to criticism, such as the numerous instances when he was criticized by Robert Hooke , and his admitted reluctance to publish any substantial information regarding calculus before A perfectionist by nature, Newton also refrained from publication of material that he felt was incomplete, as evident from a year gap from Newton's conception of calculus in and its final full publication in , which would ultimately lead to the infamous Leibniz—Newton calculus controversy.

In , a collection of Isaac Newton's unpublished works were auctioned by Sotheby's on behalf of Gerard Wallop, 9th Earl of Portsmouth , who had inherited them from Newton's great-niece. Known as the "Portsmouth Papers", this material consisted of three hundred and twenty-nine lots of Newton's manuscripts, over a third of which were filled with content that appeared to be alchemical in nature.

At the time of Newton's death this material was considered "unfit to publish" by Newton's estate, and consequently fell into obscurity until their somewhat sensational reemergence in At the auction many of these documents, along with Newton's death mask , were purchased by economist John Maynard Keynes , who throughout his life collected many of Newton's alchemical writings. Arts and Humanities Research Board. In addition, The Jewish National and University Library has published a number of high-quality scanned images of various Newton documents.

Of the material sold during the Sotheby's auction, several documents indicate an interest by Newton in the procurement or development of the philosopher's stone. Most notably are documents entitled Artephius his secret Book , followed by The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus, wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius ; these are themselves a collection of excerpts from another work entitled Nicholas Flammel, His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris.

Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone. This work may also have been referenced by Newton in its Latin version found within Lazarus Zetzner 's Theatrum Chemicum , a volume often associated with the Turba Philosophorum and other early European alchemical manuscripts. Nicolas Flamel , one subject of the aforementioned work, was a notable, though mysterious figure, often associated with the discovery of the philosopher's stone, hieroglyphical figures, early forms of tarot , and occultism.

Artephius , and his "secret book", were also subjects of interest to 17th century alchemists. Also in the auction of Newton's collection was The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini This is a twenty-eight page treatise on the philosopher's stone, the Animal or Angelicall Stone , the Prospective stone or magical stone of Moses, and the vegetable or the growing stone. The treatise concludes with an alchemical poem.

In a manuscript he wrote in in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, Newton estimated that the world would end no earlier than In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail.

Newton studied and wrote extensively upon the Temple of Solomon , dedicating an entire chapter of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended to his observations regarding the temple. Newton's primary source for information was the description of the structure given within 1 Kings of the Hebrew Bible , which he translated himself from Hebrew.

In addition to scripture, Newton also relied upon various ancient and contemporary sources while studying the temple.

He believed that many ancient sources were endowed with sacred wisdom [5] and that the proportions of many of their temples were in themselves sacred. This belief would lead Newton to examine many architectural works of Hellenistic Greece , as well as Roman sources such as Vitruvius , in a search for their occult knowledge. This concept, often termed prisca sapientia sacred wisdom and also the ancient wisdom that was revealed to Adam and Moses directly by God , was a common belief of many scholars during Newton's lifetime.

A more contemporary source for Newton's studies of the temple was Juan Bautista Villalpando , who just a few decades earlier had published an influential manuscript entitled Ezechielem Explanationes , in which Villalpando comments on the visions of the biblical prophet Ezekiel , including within this work his own interpretations and elaborate reconstructions of Solomon's Temple. In its time, Villalpando's work on the temple produced a great deal of interest throughout Europe and had a significant impact upon later architects and scholars.

As a Bible scholar, Newton was initially interested in the sacred geometry of Solomon's Temple, such as golden sections , conic sections , spirals , orthographic projection , and other harmonious constructions, but he also believed that the dimensions and proportions represented more. Newton believed that the temple was designed by King Solomon with privileged eyes and divine guidance. To Newton, the geometry of the temple represented more than a mathematical blueprint, it also provided a time-frame chronology of Hebrew history.

Newton felt that just as the writings of ancient philosophers, scholars, and Biblical figures contained within them unknown sacred wisdom, the same was true of their architecture. He believed that these men had hidden their knowledge in a complex code of symbolic and mathematical language that, when deciphered, would reveal an unknown knowledge of how nature works. In Newton annotated a copy of Manna - a disquisition of the nature of alchemy , an anonymous treatise which had been given to him by his fellow scholar Ezekiel Foxcroft.

In his annotation Newton reflected upon his reasons for examining Solomon's Temple by writing:. This philosophy, both speculative and active, is not only to be found in the volume of nature, but also in the sacred scriptures, as in Genesis , Job , Psalms, Isaiah and others. In the knowledge of this philosophy, God made Solomon the greatest philosopher in the world.

During Newton's lifetime, there was great interest in the Temple of Solomon in Europe, due to the success of Villalpando 's publications, and augmented by a vogue for detailed engravings and physical models presented in various galleries for public viewing. In , Judah Leon Templo produced a model of the temple and surrounding Jerusalem, which was popular in its day. Around , Gerhard Schott produced a highly detailed model of the temple for use in an opera in Hamburg composed by Christian Heinrich Postel.

This immense foot-high 4. Isaac Newton's most comprehensive work on the temple, found within The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended , was published posthumously in , only adding to the public interest in the temple. Newton considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture.

In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. In addition, Newton would spend much of his life seeking and revealing what could be considered a Bible Code.

He placed a great deal of emphasis upon the interpretation of the Book of Revelation , writing generously upon this book and authoring several manuscripts detailing his interpretations. Unlike a prophet in the true sense of the word, Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophesy for him, believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be "so little understood".

Although Newton's approach to these studies could not be considered a scientific approach, he did write as if his findings were the result of evidence-based research. In late February and early March , a large amount of media attention circulated around the globe regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, indicating that he believed the world would end no earlier than The story garnered vast amounts of public interest and found its way onto the front page of several widely distributed newspapers, including the UK's Daily Telegraph , Canada's National Post , Israel's Maariv and Yediot Aharonot , and was also featured in an article in the scientific journal Canadian Journal of History.

The two documents detailing this prediction are currently housed within the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. These documents do not appear to have been written with the intention of publication and Newton expressed a strong personal dislike for individuals who provided specific dates for the Apocalypse purely for sensational value. Furthermore, he at no time provides a specific date for the end of the world in either of these documents.

To understand the reasoning behind the prediction, an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his apparent antitrinitarian beliefs and his Protestant views on the Papacy.

Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which ultimately would provide the time frame. See Isaac Newton's religious views for more details. The first document, part of the Yahuda collection, [23] is a small letter slip, on the back of which is written haphazardly in Newton's hand:. The prophetick days did not commence before the rise of the little horn of the He Goat. Therefore the years do not end before ye year nor after The second reference to the prediction can be found in a folio, [24] in which Newton writes:.

And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of lived [sic for "long lived"] kingdoms, the period of days, if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A. It may end later, but I see no reason for its ending sooner. Clearly Newton's mathematical prediction of the end of the world is one derived from his interpretation of not only scripture, but also one based upon his theological viewpoint regarding specific chronological dates and events as he saw them.

Newton may not have been referring to the post event as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the globe and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world, as he saw it, was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace.

In a separate manuscript, [25] Isaac Newton paraphrases Revelation 21 and 22 and relates the post events by writing:. New Jerusalem comes down from heaven prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband. For Newton's view of according to his contemporaries, see Religious views of Isaac Newton. Isaac Newton wrote extensively upon the historical topic of chronology. In The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended , an approximately 87, word composition that details the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms was published.

The publication date of this work occurred after his death, although the majority of it had been reviewed for publication by Newton himself shortly before he died. As such, this work represents one of his last known personally reviewed publications.

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