This voyeurism keeps going even as the aforementioned woman gets up, washes and dresses in various sequences interspersed in chapter three. Vertov's camera cuts from the sleeping woman to the painting on the wall of an old man, located and leering as if he too were watching her sleep.
This voyeurism is further emphasized by the…… [Read More]. Gw Hegel's Philosophy of History. His career at school and university was undistinguished - his certificate mentioned his "inadequate grasp of philosophy. His work as a tutor gave him a lot of free time that he could devote to his private examination of the world and history.
His private studies were not impeded by a hard or long houred job. In he won his first university post at the University of Jena. After the Battle of Jena in when Napoleon defeated the Prussians, Hegel saw the emperor riding past. Many adult readers disagree with the portrayed unreality of Dahl's books because in life everything is not fair, and good does not always win. Even when the hero of the Witches is permanently turned into a mouse, the reader is assured by the main character that, "I honestly don't feel especially bad about it.
I don't even feel angry. In fact, I feel rather good" This lack of remorse is typical of Dahl's stories. Similarly, many do not like Dahl's concept that virtue and poverty go together, such as with Miss Honey, Matilda's adored teacher. Some find this objectionable because it is a view consistent with Marxist philosophy, not one that supports free market capitalism. Further criticism arises from Dahl's portrayal of adults, which many believe has a negative impact on the young readers.
Throughout his work, authoritarian adults are often the victims of horrible revenge. However, what some find…… [Read More]. Cold War Historians Vary Widely. This happened as a side effect of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev experimentation with liberalization of the economy and the political system to increase productivity and encourage innovation.
This liberalization, for the first time, allowed criticism of the Soviet System by nationalist leaders. However, as a result, they began to demand freedom and declared the independence of their republics. In , the leaders of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine signed the Belovezh agreement, which declared that "the U.
By the end of the early s, there were no important Cold War issues left. By that time, both sides had practically identical goals, a Europe whole and free, and a world where international disputes would be solved through negotiation rather than through attempts by one side or the other to impose its will by force.
This all came about through…… [Read More]. Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez and. This short article really makes sense of a complex matter, and allows the reader to understand the inherent problems that come with Marxism and a Marxist dictator, even if they had never read about the policy before. This is not a comprehensive look at Chavez and his administration, but as a short piece it is interesting, gives plenty of information, and if anything, may get the reader to look further into Chavez, his administration, and Venezuela's future.
There is only one criticism of the piece, and that is that it ends leaving the reader with more questions, instead of tying up the loose ends and answering all the questions it poses.
However, the author cannot see into the future, and so questions about what will happen to Venezuela are inevitable, especially with such a volatile, controversial leader as…… [Read More]. Economic Effect of Legalizing Drugs. Economic Effect of Legalizing Drugs The program for banning the trading and using of narcotic drugs like cocaine, heroine, and marijuana is one of the most essential public welfare program, attracting so much political discourse on the effectiveness of the 'war on drugs' and the substitute programs like legalization, rehabilitation through decriminalization, drug treatment, and medical marijuana.
Economists vehemently criticized the success of the war on drugs pointing to the adverse consequences like violent crime and corruption, and suggested the substitute programs like drug legalization and decriminalization. Milton Friedman has since been upheld the legalization of drugs. The legalization envisages exerting regulatory government control over drug sales more practically through the state clinics or stores. There is stringent ban on the advertisement, declaring the…… [Read More].
Presumption Often Promulgated by Scholars. They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies Smith Notice the continuum here -- globalization, like modernization, is a process, but a process that insists movement from A to B.
While this is primarily an economic determinant, nothing exists in a vacuum. Therefore, economics drive technological, social, cultural, political, and even biological factors.
And, with this exchange of paradigms, there is transnational circulation of ideas, languages, popular culture, and communication through acculturation. Typically, we see the movement of globalization moving into the developing world…… [Read More]. Holocaust Really Happened The Systematic. Those who could work, mostly men, were sent the other way and "processed" into the camp.
They were stripped naked, all their belongings confiscated, and shaved from head to toe, given worn-out rags to wear and shoes that did not fit. There were no blankets, mattresses, pillows, or heat in the dormitory "beds" like wooden boxes where they slept six to a bed. They were systematically starved and used for slave labor. After a whole day of heavy labor, "dinner" was a bowl of cabbage "soup," mostly water, and sometimes a slice of bread.
They mustered twice a day to be counted, often standing for hours on end without adequate clothing in the winter. Those who became unable to work went to the gas chamber. During epidemics the bodies piled up in heaps like garbage, and vicious dogs, trained to hate the prisoners, guarded the camps. Why Didn't…… [Read More]. He admitted to being a 'political illiterate' and had studied law, he said, not because he felt an attraction to the legal profession but because his family expected it.
His group attempted a coup d'etat against the rule of Batista however they failed and were imprisoned. While in prison Castro wrote the work entitled: Castro is noted to have stated: But I do not fear prison, just as…… [Read More]. Democracy Is Better Than Bureaucracy. As an economist who had studied administrative and regulatory law, he saw the waste and inefficiency in socialism, but he points out that Lenin and Hitler, as well as the British champions of socialization and "thus the most eminent advocates of socialism implicitly admit that their tenets and plans cannot stand the criticism of economic science and are doomed under a regime of freedom" von Mises In Bureaucracy, von Mises concluded that every man cannot be an economist, that professionals have an advantage over laymen as they devote all their time to that one thing, becoming specialists in their area.
Highly regulated fields include environmental protection, healthcare, and professional licensing. Understanding and applying principles of administrative law are critical to a smooth functioning of government.
Administrative law is also important in interactions with government in its proprietary capacity, such as eminent domain, real estate development, contracts and construction. Feminism Is a Philosophy Driven. A Comparative Historical Approach. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 14, 1: Offen, in her book, has very successfully and clearly laid out the history of feminism and its overall impact.
Her own analyses, though, of the philosophy of feminism are of the utmost interest as she incorporates the phenomenon of dualism, individualism and relationalism into the feminist school of thought. Levin on…… [Read More]. William J Donovan and the. National Guard, which had been conducting a vigorous recruiting campaign Troy According to this author, "The Sixty-ninth was drafted into the Regular Army and was proud to be selected New York's representative in the newly formed Forty-second Division, the 'Rainbow Division,' where it was redesignated the th Regiment" Troy These events as much as any other were responsible for providing Donovan with both the experience as well as the recognition that would help propel him into future leadership positions.
In this regard, Troy reports that, "It remained 'the old Sixty-ninth,' however, and for the better part of his twenty-two months of service Donovan was the commander of its First Battalion. It was in that capacity, a lieutenant colonel, that he saw combat, was several times wounded, and demonstrated such outstanding qualities of leadership and moral courage that he emerged from the war with 'more medals than any…… [Read More]. Wages of Whiteness Roediger in.
Weaknesses include the long and laborious task of reading the work, one which I and many others may find oppressive and overly academic in nature. Perhaps Roediger would have benefited by providing his audience with story telling or other tools the reader could use to actively engage in the activities provided throughout the book. As one continues reading they soon realize Roediger provides his own interpretation and synthesis of psychoanalysis from himself and others, acknowledging the Marxist thoughts and psychoanalytical processes that led to racism during the early part of American history, where working class racism was most likely to occur.
What Roediger does attempt successfully is to distinguish the term "whiteness" as a separate entity, a fact many philosophers and educators agree on. Duggan notes much chaos arose following publication of the book, in part because some suggest the book helped create movements whose purpose was to eliminate…… [Read More]. Shirley Jackson Is the Kind. Jackson was born in San Francisco, to father Leslie Jackson, an English immigrant and Geraldine Bugbee Jackson, who was related to the famous California architects, an association some give credit for driving her sense of place and detail for architecture in her stories.
She spent most of her years in Vermont and is associated as a New England writer. The last work Jackson published, like the Lottery was one of a macabre chance occurrence. Roman Empire to Today the. The voices who argue that America should and could be an imperial superpower, but lacks sound practical judgment.
The thesis of this paper is that the history of the Roman Empire can be matched to that of the United States in terms of economy, political power, as well as aspirations.
In this sense, present day America is very similar to fourth of even fifth century Rome; this poses one stringent yet logical question: Will America follow in the footsteps of ancient Rome and meet its demise in a similar fashion? Although this paper cannot possibly answer this question, it will examine the current political, economic, social and cultural situation in America and compare it to the circumstances leading to the fall of the Roman Empire.
This paper will also include a brief history of the Roman Empire, followed by an analysis of the factors which have brought its decline,…… [Read More]. U S Foreign Policy and the. Chavez won his Presidency by majority vote of the people. Venezuela represents the most obvious example where the U. Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia with its lineage-based selection of rulers represents the furthest from a democracy that one can get. Bin Laden claims that the U. Many regimes in…… [Read More].
Clash of Civilizations - Samuel. Said goes so far as to say that Huntington's book attempted to give his original article a bit more "subtlety" along with "many, many more footnotes. John Maynard Keynes's Contributions to. A b Consider the articles on behavioral economics at http: Summarizethe main thrust of some of these articles.
Based on these articles, what's your opinion of behavioral economics? Do you think behavioral economics represents a return to Veblen's ideas? In many respects it can be agreed that behavioral economics has much in common with Veblen's theories. Behavioral economists agree with Veblen that in most cases humans act illogically, because they are driven by instincts rather than by pure reason.
Thorstein Veblen stated that economic processes are mainly affected by evolution, social relations, political situation and other factors which are more global than circulation of money and accumulation of wealth. His ideas of social relations domination in economics have much in common with ideas of behavioral economists, who state that economy is much affected by psychological factor, or behavior of social groups.
It's proved by a number of applied researches held…… [Read More]. Miguel Angel Asturias A Life. Even his most explicitly political works, like El Senor Presidente, make use of magical realism rather than address specific contemporary issues directly: Justice is a mockery, and army officers spend their time plotting or in brothels. El Senor Presidente utilized surrealistic techniques; it reflected Asturias's idea that Indians' nonrational perception of reality is an expression of the subconscious forces, the collective dream of mankind" Gascoigne Asturias saw the worldview of Indians as more humane, fruitful, and inspiring and another of his works, Hombres de Maiz, "depicted a rebellion by a remote tribe of Indians against desecration of their mountains and their annihilation by the army" Gascoigne The work was openly Marxist and primitivist, celebrating the natives' protection of their indigenous corn harvesting from wealthy industrialists from those seeking to profit from the life-giving soil without…… [Read More].
Schumpeter The Transition From Capitalism. Katherine Anne Porter the Life. In , she published her first short story anthology, Flowering Judas and Other Stories, which was highly praised by critics. Flowering Judas is the story of young American woman during the Marxist Revolution in Mexico, who advances the cause of Marxism and helps the political prisoners, but becomes disillusioned while doing so.
It is the story of a woman who can't make a real commitment to life. The story ends with a nightmare, in which the woman eats the blossoms of a Judas tree, betraying herself and her cause. Porter once said that this was her favorite story. Porter remarried in to a man named Ernest Stock, but her marriage only lasted a year. Between the years of and , she suffered numerous miscarriages and a stillbirth. After Stock affected her with gonorrhea, she had a hysterectomy in Porter never became a mother.
This operation was something…… [Read More]. There are two aspects to the answer. Thus, the lesson referred to by the title is not the typical lesson that one would expect; this is not a lesson that can be learned from just any four-walled classroom but this is one that is learned through living.
Moreover, the short story teaches the readers that there are people like the young narrator Sylvia, who do not know, and do not exert an effort to know, what life is like beyond their own communities and social status. These same people are content, thinking that they have the right kind of life. Therefore, they do not strive to better themselves in order to claim equality with people considered to be part of the much wealthier, upper class.
On the other hand, they may just be showing symptoms of a defense mechanism where they try to show that they do not really care if they are poor and downtrodden; they are tough and do not want to see themselves in any other light. Bambara makes use of dialect in order for Sylvia to become a fully realized and realistic narrator. The reader can almost hear the impoverished and black, but confident and often abrasive girl who refuses to listen to anything that Miss Moore teaches her and the other children.
Sylvia may not be fully aware that she and her friends are prejudiced against Miss Moore. This can be compared to some students who are terrified of one subject, for example Math, and actually do terribly in the subject because their fear has frozen them and has made them easily give up. Sylvia is not the type of girl who gives up but she is the type of girl who questions authority. Miss Moore, with all her lessons, is authority. Thirty-five dollars and the whole household could go visit Grand-daddy Nelson in the country.
Thirty-five dollars would pay for the rent and the piano bill too. Sylvia has actually learned. She is actually thinking despite her outward antagonism.
Since Sylvia us the narrator, she cannot help but reveal to the audience what she thinks and feels. Though she may not admit it even to herself, she knows that the lessons are taking effect because she recognizes that they have a generous purpose. However, she continues using the facade of not seeing the point of what deep inside, she is beginning to see the value of. Sylvia is a leader, but she is not strong enough to admit her own weaknesses which the lessons give light to.
It seems that a catastrophe might transform the state, but unless the acknowledgment of what is being performed and what is being checked undermines the awareness and the conduct of man, a calamity will not be enough to unleash the transformation. The study is concentrated on modern industrial society, wherein the technological equipment of manufacturing and delivery operates, not as the aggregate of just tools which can…… [Read More].
Karl Popper Is Arguably One of the. Karl Popper is arguably one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century because of his role as one of the pioneers of philosophy of science. Popper was a political and social philosopher of significant stature, a dedicated campaigner and strong defender of the Open Society, and a committed rival of all types of conventionalism, skepticism and relativism in human affairs and science Thorton, n.
He considered one of the greatest philosophers of his time because of his remarkable extent of intellectual influence that contributed to his recognition by individuals within and outside the field of philosophy. In his early years, Popper displayed a wide range of interests including music and an inquiring mind that was characterized by examining the psychotherapeutic theories of Fred and Adler, participating in lectures by Einstein, and becoming a Marxist.
The main motivation for Popper's scientific inquiry and discovery was the search for truth in…… [Read More]. Social History 'new History' New History. Another important theorist and historian was Eric Hobsbawm, who was well-known and respected for his work on the history of British labor movement.
These and other theorists, particularly those who dealt with the history of the labor movement in the country, provided the groundwork and the historical insight that was to lead to the later more widespread acceptance of multiculturalism and social history In Britain therefore the Marxist historians and theorists provided an important part of the foundational structure of modern multicultural history.
The importance of Marxism for social history is relatively easy to discern. Marxism is essentially an analysis and a critique of the structure of the ruling capitalist elite and privileged classes and this theoretical stance emphasizes the historical reality of the ordinary individual and worker in society.
History of Economics Is a. These methods are then examined with respect to future events using empirical observations and statistical tools. History of Economics Society, 25 It has to be accepted that such a method has been used to arrive at various conclusions. A lot of dedication is required by thinkers to derive the facts out of the information available.
This concept of economics is not drawn out of nothing, but it has been derived from facts, and scientists have toiled to put together the casual details into formal approaches.
Formal methods reduce the details in a systematic manner and so this is preferred than the informal method. However those is favor of the scientific method were against the formal method and argued that formal methods were not reliable since it was not sure whether the important aspects of the fact would be retained while reducing the information available.
Origins of Cold War. As a matter of fact, by the end of s, Soviet Union ran on these very principles. Kennan criticized the possibilities that Soviets may be involved in invading the pro-Soviet countries with their mind sets and weaken them even if they do not form a higher level of apprehension for them. Pro-ussian countries will be weakened through a designed framework to tackle the mindsets of the people following western ideologies.
Fights will be sparked in the countries where both countries have western ideologies Soviet policies will be a negative framework destructive in nature, clearing their path with whatever that comes onto them that they don't like ussell, Kennan was afraid that communism will overshadow the governments of the West but that never happened.
At least not to the extent that it was feared by Kennan. Britain and mostly America was afraid of the way communist were taking over and…… [Read More]. Representation and Culture Hall Stuart. The beginning pages of this chapter are significant because they do a good job of explaining the relationship between the Enlightenment and modernity, which helps establish a cultural framework for works from modern times. In addition, they help demonstrate that modernity can help explain the eternal if one looks at discrete units of time and all of its qualities.
Benedict Anderson begins his introduction by talking about the major transformation in Marxism that was occurring at the time of his writing. He believes that these transformations were self-evident because of wars occurring in Vietnam, Cambodia, and China. Furthermore, he states that these wars of historically important because the violence has been largely indefensible from a Marxist perspective, even if the world has to acknowledge the legitimacy of the original Marxist states.
Populism Appealing but Unrealistic the. Progressive Republican Theodore Roosevelt resurrected many Populist planks and re-cast them in new forms as he tentatively expanded federal regulations of business corporations. Other Populist planks -- particularly those calling for aid to farmers and employment on public works in time of depression -- became reality during the s, under the New Deal administrations of Democrat Franklin Roosevelt.
Though the criticisms which it levied against the economic system were not totally unfounded, its uncompromising nature and expectation of the cure would be unrealistic. This idea that the population could be made to govern itself and to conduct its own business echoes the charming but ungrounded naivete found in Hightower's discussion.
Here, we are shown a side of populism that springs…… [Read More]. Keynesians and Marxians Keynesians vs. There are many potential actions that could have been taken to help prevent the closing of GM and the job losses, plant closings, and economic catastrophe that is likely to occur as the once unstoppable giant collapses Wolff, The UAW won above subsistence level wages for GM employees, which should have theoretically had the same effect as an economic stimulus in the traditional Keynesian sense.
However, rather than being rewarded with increased demand, GM workers found themselves displaced when the company decided to move production to countries where the workers did not attempt to cut into company profits by demanding fair wages. The company profited and these changes had little affect on demand.
The world still demanded GM cars, regardless of where they were produced. The impact of displaced workers should have created the affect of decreased demand according to both Keynesian and Marxian economics. However, when one takes…… [Read More]. Embedded The Relationship Between Form. He does propose "a Media and Democracy Act, an omnibus bill that could be a way of showing how all of these issues are connected," but he does not provide any details of what might actually be included in this all-encompassing piece of hypothetical legislation p.
Rather, he simply asserts that this potential legislation that, if it actually included regulations to effectively combat the problems with American journalism would almost certainly never have passed at the time of his writing and would still be extremely unlikely now could magically "create one easy to market and explain package of proposals that can forge a coalition with many stakeholders and…… [Read More].
Holocaust Politics Totalitarianism's Controversial Notions The human social animal's capacity for collective tyranny and violence in Hannah Arendt's seminal work Since the publication of her work on The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt has received much criticism as a philosopher and an historian for her theory of the human, historical development of notions of society or what Arendt terms 'the social.
But the nationalist and imperialist movements of the 19th century perverted these previous mental and material social alliances in history, to create the manifestation of 'the masses' that enabled totalitarianism to take hold in Germany, Russia, and other areas of the world. Critical to Arendt's conception of totalitarianism is her notion of the…… [Read More]. Producer A Goal-Oriented Review in. Based on the style of the piece, which is rigid, scholarly, and filled with examples from high culture, one can quickly determine that Benjamin's audience is the intellectual.
In fact, Benjamin's conclusive statement -- "For the revolutionary struggle does not take place between capitalism and the intellect, but between capitalism and the proletariat" 8 -- is an excellent summary of the author's goal for that particular audience. Benjamin's primary goal is to convince said intellectuals that they should not be embarrassed of their status as intellectuals, for such a status almost immediately marks them as treading a path between the bourgeoisie and proletariat, a place of sympathy without identification.
Questionnaires are often used in research to provide raw data to the researcher in order to support or deny his hypothesis. My approach in developing a high quality questionnaire revolves around the purpose of the research. The purpose should be clear cut and not ambiguous.
The purpose of the questionnaire needs to answer the following questions: It is also important in developing a questionnaire to determine what specifically is being measured. Narrowing down the appropriate audience is also important when developing a questionnaire for research. The question of who is being targeted and all the demographic information associated with that task must be considered in the development. It is also imperative that the data is collected in a practical manner when designing…… [Read More].
Public Passions Shi Jianqiao became a media sensation in Nationalist China during the s for shooting the ex-warlord Sun Chuanfang, a leading member of the Tianjin Qingxiu lay-Buddhist society jushilin. She shot Sun three times on November 13, in prayer hall congregation site on Nanma Road.
Although she was prosecuted for murder, the courts returned a controversial final verdict of judicial leniency, and the Nationalist Guomindang regime overturned this final verdict by issuing a state pardon.
These events led to a public debate on the merits and demerits of filial revenge, although contemporary accounts do not examine the larger sociopolitical implications the case may have had. Shi Jianqiao represented the female assassin's singular and violent expression of filial sentiment xiao , as well as the female warrior code of "chivalrous virtue" xia , and helped give rise to a new communal form of ethical sentiment - "public sympathy" tongqing.
For liberal…… [Read More]. Neoliberalism Neoliberal ideology has contributed to the rise in development and reduction of poverty in much of the world since World War II.
The main bodies responsible for neoliberalism, such as the United Nations and later the World Trade Organization have encouraged trade, economic openness and democracy. Where these things have not been accepted -- where neoliberalism has been rejected, living standards tend to be lower, and where neoliberalism has been embraced wholeheartedly the living standards are as high as have been enjoyed by any humans in history.
De Soto describes some of the development that has occurred in Peru, which is a moderately neoliberal state. He argues that individual effort can come before collective effort, a hallmark of neoliberalism and that this has resulted higher living standards for many of the country's citizens. De Soto also notes that these changes have also been at the social level. The people…… [Read More]. Education Philosophical Influences on American. There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside Montessori theory, No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible.
All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned.
Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education. How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Works Cited Ibsen, H. E-text of "A Doll's House. Works Cited Locke, John. The Second Treatise on Civil Government. Marx, Karl, Engels, Frederick. Retrieved on 5 Nov. Marxism, and class, gender, and race: Online available at http: Colgate Academic Review, 2 The Sage handbook of curriculum and instruction.
Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Popular Culture, Ideology, and Capitalism: Critique of the 'Culture Industry'" Yar, Majid. Culture as a System of Signs" Yar, Majid. Popular Culture and Gender Identities". Conversations with August Wilson. University of Mississippi, University of Illinois, Archive Media Project, LP. Grigori Aleksandrov and Maksim Shtraukh. Works Cited Achebe, Chinua.
Domestic Realities and Imperial Fictions: Of Georgia P, Sources Academy of American Poets. The Bog Girl Re-sexualized: An Analysis of Seamus Heaney's "Punishment. Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology: Ideas, Issues, and Applications. The Essence of Evolutionary Society: Marx and Locke View Full Essay.
We can see the best examples of these 19th century economic theories in the works of Henry George, a populist who wished to ensure plurality by limiting the ability of property owners to hoard natural resources, and Herbert Spencer, an English sociologist who incorporated Darwinism into his defenses of what is now termed 'classical' liberalism and famously advocated "the right to ignore the state.
Manifesto of the Communist Party. Accessed 28 February Works Cited Felluga, Dino. Date of last update: Princeton University Press, History -- the English Reformation.
Works Cited Bawden, Garth. The Idea of Culture. The History of Sexuality: An Introduction Volume 1. Works Cited Bork, Robert H. Social Theory and Modern Sociology. Stanford University Press, Works Cited Cavalcanti, Ildney. The Fictions of Language and the Languages of Fiction: The Linguistic Representation of Speech and Consciousness.
University of North Carolina Press, Realism and the End of View Full Essay. Joseph Andrews View Full Essay. A Companion to Satire. Hypocrisy and the Politics of Politeness: Manners and Morals from Locke to Austen. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, New York and London: Existentialism Philosophy View Full Essay.
Class Struggle and Women's Liberation. Women's liberation and the dialectics of revolution: Reaching for the future. Wayne State University Press. Toward a More Progressive Union. Introduction to Edmund Spenser's the Shephearde's Calendar. The University of Oregon. University of Toronto Press.
Critics of "Free Speech" and the Uses of the Past. Constitutional Commentary, 12 1 , Retrieved August 5, , from Questia database, http: On Freedom of Speech of the Opposition. World Affairs, 3 , The paradox of Flaubert's project of writing to satirize reading is clear, through Jong's interpretation of his most famous work.
Then this must be a writer mocking himself! And indeed, Flaubert memorably said that he had drawn Madame Bovary from life -- and after himself. Emma's interior life, however focused it may be centered on shallow objects and pursuits, is what makes her stand apart from the depicted heroines of pulp novels. Flaubert's prose is not merely descriptive and realistic. It also is psychologically full of nuance and more detailed than authors of sensationalist novels, whose heroines do not have a clear, discernable motivation for why they transgress sexual norms.
Although Jong's own fiction is often described as feminist, Jong points out that Emma's sense of discontent with her life is not merely connected to the fact that her feminine role as a housewife is frustrating. Emma does not seek a more useful life, Emma seeks "ecstasy and transcendence" that is in short supply in her rural French community. Jong's stress upon the spirituality of Emma's quest is an important reminder of the fact that Emma begins her education in a convent, and actually seems to show a superficial aptitude for the life of a nun.
Emma later brings her fervor for gracious living to her life as a wife, then a mistress. Emma's inner life may seem to be centered around the pursuit of empty things, like beautiful home goods, dresses, and beautiful love affairs, but she is located squarely within a society that valorizes such objects and offers them as the only secular solution to ennui.
This is the final paradox of Bovary -- a novel that critiques itself and a genre likely to be very dear to the heart of a reader is so successful, and still feels modern today.
Although Jong's essay does not offer an extensive, deep interpretation of the entire novel, it acts as an important reminder of critical aspects of the work that may be overlooked, like the role of religion in the novel, and the importance of reading to Emma's interior life.
Durkheim and the Division of View Full Essay. Law in a Moral Domain. Extract from the Division of Labor. Works Cited Hobbes, Thomas. Two Treatises of Government. Hackett Company, Inc, An Essay in Method'. Some Problems of Conceptualization'. Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation: A Realist Critique of the Newest. Works Cited Byres, TJ. Priddy, Anna, and Harold Bloom. Bloom's Literary Criticism,
Born in Hungary, Lukács joined the Communist Party in and later migrated to Russia. He has defined his Marxist theories of literature and criticism in such works as Die Eigenart des Asthetischen (), and remains central to the study of .
Based on the socialist and dialectical theories of Karl Marx, Marxist criticism views literary works as reflections of the social institutions out of which they are born. According to Marxists, even literature itself is a social institution and has a specific ideological function, based on the background and ideology of the author.
Marxist literary criticism is based upon the political and economic theories of the German philosopher Karl Marx. In works like The German Ideology and The Communist Manifesto, written with Frederick Engels, Marx proposes a model of history in which economic and political conditions determine social conditions. Critical Essays A Marxist Approach to the Novel Bookmark this page Manage My Reading List Based on the ideas of Karl Marx, this theoretical approach asks us to consider how a literary work reflects the socioeconomic conditions of .
Marxist Criticism Essay - Marxist Criticism Introduction Marxist literary criticism is based upon the political and economic theories of the German philosopher Karl Marx. In works like The German Ideology and The Communist Manifesto, written with Frederick Engels, Marx proposes a model of history in which economic and political conditions determine . Marxist Literary Criticism Essay Words 2 Pages While literary critics do attempt to elaborate or develop ideas articulated by Karl Marx, it is important and necessary to make a distinction between Marx's specific socio-economic and political agenda and the body of literary theory which emerged years later.