The causes of the Red Scare are numerous and varied, however, one of the most important factors that contributed to the scare was the acts passed during World War I. During the war, social-anarchists did not support American involvement, nor did they support the subsequent draft.
It was important in relation to the Red Scare because it allowed for censoring of radical literature as well as regulation of the mail. It was directed against subversives and, therefore, cast a very broad net. Because of the Sedition act, many individuals were arrested for distributing media that criticized the American military Eugene Debs, head of the Socialist Party, was one of them. In this sense, the war produced an era of intolerance for subversives, and it was this attitude that provided a ripe setting for the Red Scare of to take place.
The Sedition Act was the legal excuse people used to regulate, censor, prosecute, and deport Americans thought to be radicals. Intolerance during the war would cause Americans to fear immigrants and radicals afterward, and it would only take a little spark to cause full blown hysteria.
The labor unrest following the end of World War I would prove to be instrumental in igniting the fire that was the Red Scare of The years after the war were marked by economic turmoil and labor unrest. At first, laborers expected the good working conditions, a staple of the wartime economy, to continue after the war was over. The economy was in good shape because war time contracts had cased industry to boom. Labor was supported by the government during the war in order to keep production levels high.
After the war ended, however, contracts were canceled, which caused rising unemployment, and managers stopped cooperating with labor. Without government support, labor unions began to strike in order to recapture the gains they had made during the war.
One such strike took place in Seattle and involved sixty thousand workers Painter, Soon, this strike and others were labeled as a communist effort to undermine the American economy.
The cycle of hysteria had begun. Labor unions were seen as Bolshevik sponsored organizations, and union members were labeled as communists. America began to become afraid because they saw there way of life slipping away. The raids and arrests occurred in November and January under the leadership of Attorney General A. Once Europe entered the war, the split occurred; this break up hurt the Socialist party and many who were not Socialists opposed the draft, but the party was the point of opposition.
These people became targets for attack by American nationalists and the American government; members were lynched and important Socialist documents were burned.
One Friday, January 2, to be exact, agents from the Department of Justice raided a Communist hideout and began arresting thousands of people in major American cities throughout the nation. They raided people who stayed in private homes, clubs, pool halls and coffee shops. The raiding got so hectic that in many places that they started arresting citizens and aliens, Communists and non-Communists.
Destruction of meeting halls and property began as well and along with putting their victims in prison, agents held them without an attorney and interrogated them. Prisoners were released a few days later unless they were members of the Communist Party or the Communist Labor Party.
These two groups were formed from the American Communist movement and in only two days nearly five thousand people were arrested. Nearly five thousand were seized in the cleaning up that followed during the next two weeks.
The arrests were carried out with total disregard for the rights of the prisoners. These people were extremely patriotic and ready to rid their nation of any intruder that seemed to threaten them, mainly the minorities whom they were very hostile with.
Senator Kenneth McKellen of Tennessee went so far as to propose sending all native-born radicals to a special penal colony on the island of Guam. Liberal journalist tried to mock Palmer in many different ways. In some occasions they would compare his actions to the shaving of a dogs hair and how by this it would promote growth in the society. He still went on with all his raids. On Friday, January 2, , agents of the Justice department raided a Communist headquarters and began to arrest thousands of people all throughout the cities.
In a period of two days, people were arrested and jailed. There was no reason for this doing and the treatment the prisoners got was unacceptable. The peace and security of the American nation was now being destroyed by the Wobblies and Socialists. The attacks were now focused on them, not anymore on the objectors. They were targeted by the use of the Espionage Act of The Justice Department convicted more than people.
Surely among this number were a large number of Socialists and Wobblies. The Espionage Act was not the only law that was made by legislators to discriminate against antiwar groups. In October , Congress passed the Alien Act, which gave the Secretary of Labor the power to deport any alien who, at any time after entering the United States, is found to have been at the time of entry, or to have become thereafter a member of any anarchist organization. This gave Palmer the authority to conduct his raids, during which thousands of people were arrested and detained without actually having been charged.
Many tries to repeal the legislation, many Socialists became prominent figures due to their attempts to gain release for their imprisoned friends. The government had formulated and put into effect their plan to rid the country of unwanted foreign radicals, but the problem remained as what to do with those radicals were citizens of the United States.
This was not to go unanswered for long, however. America was now in a state of disturbed peace and could not calm down until it rids its country of its disruptions. Communism was established on the political philosophy of Karl Marx and was dedicated to establishing a society where there is no private ownership of property and where the government would control the making and distribution of all goods.
Karl Heinrich Marx German pronunciation: His ideas played a significant role in the establishment of the social sciences and the development of the socialist movement.
Due to the horrible misconduct and the overthrow of government, Americans began to panic. No plot to overthrow the government was ever uncovered. Yet, it was the paranoid fear of Communists that drove many Americans to violence. Another reason for the Red Scare was the strike held by mine workers. The nuns' stories made me want to keep everything that I could.
First, I would keep my faith. Much later, I would keep our regard for each other, and the ways which we revealed ourselves in these small houses. The return from the very bloody and life changing WWII also peppers the reflections of the work, through both the ability of the community to embrace the Red scare with complete and utter servitude, build civic and amateur bomb shelters and honor those who returned with constancy.
Many of the homes in Lakewood were purchased by young couples, the male partner being a returning veteran from WWII, as a result of the programs…… [Read More]. Criminalization of Gays in the. It is considered to be a pandemic by the World Health Organization, and has, since , killed more than 25 million people worldwide United Nations. In the United States, however, it became known as the "Gay Plague" due to its initial discovery in the homosexual population, the lack of condom use at the time, and the predominance of anal sexual activity.
This stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents a number of individuals from seeking HIV testing, receiving their results, securing treatment, or even turning what would normally be a managable chronic illness into something that is dire and a death sentence -- as well as perpetuating the disease -- all because of misguided bias Ogden and Nyblade Cultural Issues…… [Read More].
WWII to the 60s the. Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" Wilson The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression.
Franklin oosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction Badger.
Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing else,…… [Read More]. South East Asia Early American.
The goal was to eliminate the communist threat and stop "the domino effect" of South East Asian countries falling to the threat of communism. However, after over a decade of fighting and thousands of American deaths, the U. The dealings with South East Asia only heightened the nation's fear of communists which had been most solidified with the U.
The communist scare sent shivers down the American public, and the political atmosphere became more and more conservative in response. This was the era of Senator McCarthy, who meticulously hunted down and exposed reported communists.
Government entities began meddling into normal American life. Entire Senate…… [Read More]. Drug Culture in Film. Drug Culture Midterm Prior to this course, I had a very narrow interpretation of drug culture in regards to film. The films I was most familiar with were those that focused on marijuana such as Cheech and Chong films, Pineapple Express, Half-Baked, and the Harold and Kumar trilogy among others. Additionally, the only other heroin-centric film I was aware of was Trainspotting, and the only other cocaine-centric film that had made an impression on me was Blow.
However, as the term progressed, I became aware of how the general public perceived these drugs and how addiction was depicted in films. Additionally, my definition of drug culture expanded to include things that are not necessarily consumed but that still alter a person's perceptions or contribute to addiction.
These different types of addictions and mind-altering phenomena are most evident in Videodrome and The Social Network. There are several films that…… [Read More]. Temper Lynn Dumenil Modem Temper. Many Americans saw modernity, as they conceptualized it, as a curse, not a blessing.
The causes of the "Modern Temper were thus a culture clash of old and new, of a reaction to Progressivism as well as a desire to kick up the nation's heels at the end of World War I and a delight at the ability of more individuals to enter the more leisured consumer class. The national focus shifted to private solutions for social problems, such as women's interest in work rather than winning the vote, the Harlem Renaissance's emphasis on literature and newspapers to give Blacks a voice, and the retreat of organized labor and government's…… [Read More].
Cold War and Beyond World. Telecommunications made it easier to transfer ideas and information instantly and without the delays that hindered previous efforts at military and strategic intervention.
Similarly, the barriers to international trade had largely been lifted. Finally, the United Nations and other trans-national governing bodies would become legitimized sources of power.
Nations who could climb on board stood a chance and those who could not join in faced a perilous century of poverty and political disenfranchisement. America directly contributed to the imbalance of power that would ensue throughout the 20th century. Being a bully seemed to come easy to the Americans. Armed with what had become the largest and most well-endowed military in the world, the United States forged a path toward hegemony almost effortlessly.
As if it were trying to be the world's…… [Read More]. I believe that such environments promote socialization due to the activation energy involved in going out. If we accept that socialization is more comfortable for the majority in the traditional context of a high-density city, why do the majority of new home permits proclaim otherwise?
Why don't people just don't pick up and move to places where people have traditionally conducted their daily affairs without the use of a car, like San Francisco and New York City? The 's and 's in America saw an urban transition still unknown in most of the major cities of Europe.
Outsiders Main Characters a Review. He 'fought for Johnny,' and when Johnny dies, Dally, too, must die. And what he dies for is the absence of fairness in the world, for as all teenagers know, life is anything but fair. Again, though, where adults may guffaw at the sentimental silliness of Dally's way of death, Hinton makes it all quite credible -- even moving" p. These events also serve as the basis for Ponyboy redeeming himself academically with his English teacher who cautions him that, "Pony, I'll give it to you straight.
You're failing this class right now, but taking into consideration the circumstances, if you come up with a good semester theme, I'll pass you with a C. After calling his English teacher…… [Read More].
Patriot Act has been touted to do just this - or to make things better in terms of security of American citizens and it is certain that the provisions of this Act have served to increase levels of security for American citizens but this security has come with a cost attached and for some Americans the cost is too high and too intrusive upon their basic civil rights.
One such instance of the complexity created within the security paradigm are the no-fly lists that have been implemented in U.
Yates V United States In my judgment, the statutory provisions on which these prosecutions are based, abridge freedom of speech, press and assembly in violation of the 1st Amendment" "Black, J, Concurring in Part".
Hence, the Yates decision was a precursor of the things to come. In , the Court declared in the New York Times v. Sullivan that public officials could not recover civil damages for libel unless they prove the libel was committed intentionally or with malice and held that making seditious libel a crime conflicted with the central meaning of the First Amendment "Fighting ords". In New York Times v. United States the Court prevented the federal government from exercising "prior restraint" to stop a newspaper from printing information about the Vietnam ar that it wanted to withhold from the public.
Ohio it ruled that advocacy of violence or revolution may be prohibited only if it…… [Read More]. World War II and the. Today, the Americans fight different insurgent factions, who have limited weaponry, no air force, and no real large scale fighting tactics. Instead, they create havoc with roadside bombs and suicide bombers.
Vietnam was fought on the scale of a world war, while Iraq is being fought on a much smaller scale. In addition, there was a draft in place during Vietnam, and no draft in place today, so our forces are stretched much thinner in Iraq and at home.
In contrast, many experts believe there are similarities between the two wars, but there are far more differences that keep the two wars very far apart in perspective. For example, there is no real Communist influence in Iraq; rather the country suffers from domestic unrest and insurgency, rather than large-scale intervention from other countries except perhaps Iran.
Thus, Americans are not fighting a "cold" war but rather a war supposedly based…… [Read More]. Provincetown Players at the Beginning. However, this relationship with a labor organization provides more than that. Although not a former member, Kalmer is an anarchist. The American Federation of Labor AFL divided workers into narrow unions pursuing particular interests related to their trades and working conditions rather than creating larger comprehensive bargaining units. The IWW approach to railroad workers, for example, was a single large union instead of separate locals of firemen, switchmen, engineers, porters, among others, united behind the common cause of all the workers -- this common cause also being formed with other sizeable unions to provide a single industrial front ibid..
Susan Glaspell produced a wide variety of plays during this time that also promoted women in the theater. Labor and Union Studies the.
The Great ailroad Strike of was the nations' first major rail strike and witnessed the first general strikes in the country's history. The strikes and the violence it brought about temporarily paralyzed the country's commerce and led governors in ten states to mobilize sixty thousand militia members to reopen rail traffic.
The strike would be broken within a few weeks, but it also helped set the stage for later violence in the 's and 's, including the Haymarket Square bombing in Chicago in , the Homestead Steel Strike near Pittsburgh in , and the Pullman Strike in The Great ailroad Strike, There have been many protests in American history against corporations, industrialists, bankers, Wall Street and the economic devastation their unregulated activities including the 19th-century labor movement that featured thousands of strikes and protests.
The current protest that can be compared to that of the Great…… [Read More]. Nineteenth Century and the Early Part of. African-Americans were strictly segregated and subjected to institutional racism by the state and local governments in the South and by cultural sentiments, and Native Americans continued to be pushed into ever-smaller reservations and subjected to a host of other injustices, as well.
The former group was being ostracized from mainstream American society, while the latter group was forced to assimilate or to live in squalor, and leadership in both groups was split, as well. Meanwhile, expansion into areas of the continent that had been unsettled increased due to mining efforts and for other reasons, as well, though by the early twentieth century the frontier had largely been closed and the first phase of America's history, at least according to some observers,…… [Read More].
Covert Action One of the Key Changes. Covert Action One of the key changes of the late 20th century, certainly enhanced in the early 21st, is that of the economic, political, and cultural movements that broadly speaking, move the various countries of the world closer together.
This idea, called globalism, refers to a number of theories that see the complexities of modern life such that events and actions are tied together, regardless of the geographic location of a specific country political unit. The idea of globalism has become popular in economic and cultural terms with the advent of a number of macro-trade agreements combined with the ease of communication brought about with the Internet and cellular communication, but also the concept of the global environment as a single organism Schneider ed.
However, the changes in the global, post-World War II and even Cold War environments have also changed the perceptions of most individuals about the…… [Read More]. Immigration the Impact of Immigrants.
But many other nationalities also saw a great many prejudices directed at them like the Polish, Russian, and other Baltic state immigrants. Events like the Red Scare sweeping across America as well as mass racism against our own citizens as black soldiers returned home from Europe. Migration There was more to this era than simply immigration into the United States from Europe.
There was a strong migration period at the same time. For example, black Americans were beginning to migrate out of the southern states into the north for an opportunity to increase their wealth in northern cities like Chicago and Detroit. The Great Migration as it was known saw hundreds of thousands of Southern Blacks migrate to northern cities. But the negative side of the migration saw various race riots in cities like St. Soldiers Came Back From World.
Westerns soon developed into a staple of TV land. The independence and strength of the characters epitomized the ideals that made America so unique.
About film features and shorts were produced under this broad theme in the s and early s, explains the 50s B-Movie website. As Paul Michael comments, "n a sheer statistical basis, the number of fantasy and horror films of the s Manning Marable in His Book.
King's assassination confirmed the growing nationalistic belief against nonviolence. The greatest challenge came from the Black Panther Party and its ten-point program of radical reform. He emphasizes the lack of support for the full incorporation of black laborers -- the American Federation of Teachers, for example, opposed the establishment of affirmative action programs to regulate fairness in the labor market. The Longshoresman's Association nixed equal status of black members, and the Operating Engineers Union imposed physical violence on black graduates of their apprenticeship program and therefore blocked participation of blacks…… [Read More].
Drive Debates Around New and. The next cycle came with Polish, ussian, and other Baltic state immigrants being targeted during the 's and 50' with events like the ed Scare that swept across America. There is no doubt that all of these periods had very restrictive immigration polices directed at the target groups and there were specific legal policies implemented to curb future immigration. Again, our immigration and naturalization policies needed reevaluation after September 11, , which was an obviously horrific day in our history.
That event made us view our existing immigration, naturalization and work as well as student visa policies. In other words, we were doing the same things that were done to the Chinese, German, Japanese and Baltic state immigrants -…… [Read More]. China and the Korean War The fall of China to Communism in came about because of many different reasons. One, Mao Zedong was popular with the people, and this helped him overpower Jiang Jieshi and his government.
Mao had more military might, and he was simply more popular than Jiang with the Chinese people. China fell to Communism because of Mao's popularity more than his power. He was a farmer like most of the population of China, and he spoke to their needs and wants. Communication and How it Is. He is concerned that as the social sciences increasingly becomes more quantified, they loffer less understanding into the concepts behind symbols.
This is especially of concern, since symbols have played such an important role throughout history. Duncan gives examples of symbol misunderstandings such as: Even worse, there is no agreement between scholars on how to define the concept of symbol nor explain the ambiguity of symbols. Is this lack of definitive agreement the reason why people perceive reality differently?
Does this lead to misunderstandings and a failure to communicate? Berger and Luckman state that society is a human product. Can it also be the product of lower animals? Recently, it was shown that chimpanzees actually are capable of culture or the passing of knowledge from one…… [Read More].
Socialist Parties and Why They. The term "socialism" is often used to refer to an economic system characterized by state ownership of the means of production and distribution. Especially during the Great Depression, many socialists considered Soviet-style planning a remedy to what they saw as the inherent flaws of capitalism, such as monopolies, business cycles, unemployment, vast inequalities in the distribution of wealth, and the exploitation of workers Socialism http: Americans were raised in a nation that prides itself on the American dream.
The entire American Dream is based in the belief that if one works hard, treats people fairly and strives for success they will achieve it. Millions of immigrants come to America annually for the purpose of obtaining the American Dream that they have heard so much about back in their homeland. Another element in the failure for socialism to take hold in the United States dates back to…… [Read More]. Reforms Who Were the Progressives and What. How and why did the Progressive era end?
Several different Progressives include: Their basic goals were to rectify many the social ills that were occurring from the rapid industrialization of the nation.
This was creating a tremendous shift in the population, with more people leaving the country and moving to the cities.
As a result, there were a number of different problems that emerged in the wake of these transformations. The combination of these objectives was to give the people a voice in issues of government and society. This would limit the influence of the special interests during this process.
Party Machines and Immigrants. Political Party Machines and Immigration in 19th Century America After a bitterly contested evolution ended in the liberation of England's former colonies, the fledgling American nation embarked on the precarious path towards a style of democratic governance that had never been enacted on so large a scale. While the latter part of the 18th century was defined by political idealism, as exemplified by contributions made by our nation's Founding Fathers, the 19th century soon gave rise to an insidious process of power consolidation and voter exploitation.
The egalitarian political parties envisioned during the heady days of American Independence devolved into institutional party machines, typified by widespread corruption, fraudulent activities, autocratic rule, and a blatant disregard for the foundational importance of democracy. The most effective political party machines during the 19th century were ran ruthlessly by so-called "bosses," or political titans who maintained control over their jurisdiction through a combination of…… [Read More].
Horror Final During the Second. Because of Haynes use of dolls, I was much more interested in Karen's story; I most likely would not have been interested in the film if it simply approached her story from the same perspective as other filmmakers.
Horror films can be subdivided into various subgenres. Rosemary's Baby, for instance, may fall into the category of Satan-inspired films due to the fact that in the film, Rosemary is used as a surrogate to Satan's child. What is interesting about this film is that it relies heavily on the viewers' perception of Satan since the entity is never actually shown and neither is his child.
Not showing what Rosemary and Satan's child like forces the viewer to imagine what it must look like based on how he is described, which makes it much more frightening because this image is based on the viewers' psyche and feeds off of what they are…… [Read More]. Postwar America in Hitchcock Films Post-War America in Film In the postwar America, expectations for men and women diverged from those that prevailed during the war years.
The exigencies of World War II interrupted the evolution of social progress for Americans, substituting a "fast forward" that could better serve the national initiatives. From positions where everyone became focused on the war effort and their roles in supporting it, the postwar period saw a return to the traditional values that had dominated in the past.
Supported by the G. Bill, men sought education at unprecedented levels and located themselves in business, resuming the positions and leadership they felt were their due. Homemaking and childrearing returned to center for women in postwar America. If women were engaged in business, it was considered to be secondary to their gender-based roles as mothers, wives, and daughters. Some effects of the wartime patterns were resistant…… [Read More].
Patriot Act Following the September 11, terrorist attacks on the United States by violent fanatics, the federal government passed legislation which was designed to protect American citizens and to prevent further deaths.
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Free Essay: The First and Second Red Scare of the United States paved the way for a long standing fear of communism and proved to be one of America’s largest.
the red scare essays The Red Scare took place twice in American History. First in the period of to which was triggered by a Communist take over of Russia. The Red scare . The red scare was the turning point in American history to ignite the fire of anti-communism and set the paradigm that a communist nation would attack. Many countries fell to communism over time and the United States would desperately soon react.
The Red Scare of was the first of two major periods in American History when fear of radicalism culminated in the persecution and deportation of Americans thought to be radicals (communists, anarchists, or socialists). An unprecedented event, the Red Scare of exhibits how popular. The Red Scare Essay examples Words | 5 Pages First and Second Red Scare of the United States paved the way for a long standing fear of communism and proved to be one of America’s largest periods of mass hysteria.