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Apple is a pioneer in the branch of information technologies, personal computers, computer technologies and operation systems and can be called the most successful corporation in this sphere. Due to the quality, innovations, technologies and beautiful design Apple managed to become a prestigious brand, which can be compared with a cult, because it dictates the lifestyle to its consumers.

No wonder, Apple is the most expensive brand in the world and its annual profit is enormously high, as the production is sold all over the world. The history of the foundation of the company is quite long and interesting. Very soon the corporation developed to its high level and know it is the most expensive public company, which costs more than its main opponents Google and Microsoft taken together.

Apple, Inc is the most successful company on the market of IT and its production possesses all the innovations which one can imagine. Due to the functions and design of its products Apple has attracted the army of the devoted fans who purchase its production and look forward to the updates and new and new models of appliances. A successful Apple research proposal is supposed to present enough information about the corporation, explain the key of its success, focus on the production of the company, the history of its establishment, touch upon the scandals related with Apple and its opponents and the role of Apple in the modern world.

Furthermore, he paper should contain the methods of the research the list of the sources used for the analysis of the topic. Writing a research paper is a difficult and time consuming process, because one should know everything about the rules and standards of research paper writing.

The same year, Apple introduced System 7 , a major upgrade to the operating system which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities. It remained the architectural basis for the Classic Mac OS.

The success of the PowerBook and other products brought increasing revenue. The magazine MacAddict named the period between and as the "first golden age" of the Macintosh. Apple believed the Apple II series was too expensive to produce and took away sales from the low-end Macintosh. The success of Apple's lower-cost consumer models, especially the LC, also led to cannibalization of their higher priced machines.

To address this, management introduced several new brands, selling largely identical machines at different price points aimed at different markets.

These were the high-end Quadra , the mid-range Centris line, and the ill-fated Performa series. This led to significant market confusion, as customers did not understand the difference between models. Apple also experimented with a number of other unsuccessful consumer targeted products during the s, including digital cameras , portable CD audio players , speakers , video consoles , the eWorld online service, and TV appliances.

Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton division based on John Sculley's unrealistic market forecasts. Throughout this period, Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows by focusing on delivering software to cheap commodity personal computers, while Apple was delivering a richly engineered but expensive experience. At this time, a series of major product flops and missed deadlines sullied Apple's reputation, and Sculley was replaced as CEO by Michael Spindler.

The Macintosh platform itself was becoming outdated because it was not built for multitasking and because several important software routines were programmed directly into the hardware. The Macintosh would need to be replaced by a new platform or reworked to run on more powerful hardware.

Amelio made numerous changes at Apple, including extensive layoffs and cut costs. On July 9, , Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses. Jobs acted as the interim CEO and began restructuring the company's product line; it was during this period that he identified the design talent of Jonathan Ive , and the pair worked collaboratively to rebuild Apple's status.

On August 15, , Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh K: The iMac design team was led by Ive, who would later design the iPod and the iPhone.

During this period, [ when? In , Apple purchased Macromedia 's Key Grip software project, signaling an expansion into the digital video editing market. The sale was an outcome of Macromedia's decision to solely focus upon web development software. The product, still unfinished at the time of the sale, was renamed " Final Cut Pro " when it was launched on the retail market in April Apple then employed the same technology to create iDVD for the consumer market.

In , Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake , [81] as well as Emagic for the music productivity application Logic. The purchase of Emagic made Apple the first computer manufacturer to own a music software company. The acquisition was followed by the development of Apple's consumer-level GarageBand application. Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability, reliability, and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface.

On May 19, , Apple opened its first official eponymous retail stores in Virginia and California. The iTunes Store quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over five billion downloads by June 19, At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6, , Jobs announced that Apple would begin producing Intel -based Mac computers in By August 7, , Apple made the transition to Intel chips for the entire Mac product line—over one year sooner than announced.

Apple's success during this period was evident in its stock price. In January , Apple's market cap surpassed that of Dell. Since , Apple's design team has progressively abandoned the use of translucent colored plastics first used in the iMac G3. This design change began with the titanium -made PowerBook and was followed by the iBook 's white polycarbonate structure and the flat-panel iMac.

In an article posted on Apple's website on February 6, , Jobs wrote that Apple would be willing to sell music on the iTunes Store without digital rights management DRM , thereby allowing tracks to be played on third-party players, if record labels would agree to drop the technology. On December 16, , Apple announced that would be the last year the corporation would attend the Macworld Expo, after more than 20 years of attendance, and that senior vice president of Worldwide Product Marketing Phil Schiller would deliver the keynote address in lieu of the expected Jobs.

The official press release explained that Apple was "scaling back" on trade shows in general, including Macworld Tokyo and the Apple Expo in Paris, France, primarily because the enormous successes of the Apple Retail Stores and website had rendered trade shows a minor promotional channel.

On January 14, , Jobs announced in an internal memo that he would be taking a six-month medical leave of absence from Apple until the end of June and would spend the time focusing on his health. In the email, Jobs stated that "the curiosity over my personal health continues to be a distraction not only for me and my family, but everyone else at Apple as well", and explained that the break would allow the company "to focus on delivering extraordinary products".

After years of speculation and multiple rumored "leaks", Apple unveiled a large screen, tablet-like media device known as the iPad on January 27, The iPad ran the same touch-based operating system as the iPhone, and many iPhone apps were compatible with the iPad. This gave the iPad a large app catalog on launch, despite very little development time before the release. Later that year on April 3, , the iPad was launched in the US. It sold more than , units on its first day, and , by the end of the first week.

In June , Apple released the iPhone 4 , [] [] which introduced video calling , multitasking , and a new uninsulated stainless steel design that acted as the phone's antenna. Alongside peer entities such as Atari and Cisco Systems, Apple was featured in the documentary Something Ventured , which premiered in and explored the three-decade era that led to the establishment and dominance of Silicon Valley.

On January 17, , Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence for an indefinite period to allow him to focus on his health.

Chief Operating Officer Tim Cook assumed Jobs's day-to-day operations at Apple, although Jobs would still remain "involved in major strategic decisions".

This would be the last product launch Jobs would attend before his death. It has been argued that Apple has achieved such efficiency in its supply chain that the company operates as a monopsony one buyer, many sellers and can dictate terms to its suppliers. Prior to this, Apple did not have a chairman and instead had two co-lead directors, Andrea Jung and Arthur D. Levinson , who continued with those titles until Levinson became chairman of the board in November.

On October 5, , Steve Jobs died, marking the end of an era for Apple. From to , Apple released the iPhone 4S [] [] and iPhone 5 , [] [] which featured improved cameras, an intelligent software assistant named Siri , and cloud-sourced data with iCloud; the third and fourth generation iPads, which featured Retina displays ; [] [] [] and the iPad Mini , which featured a 7.

This beat the non-inflation-adjusted record for market capitalization set by Microsoft in A previously confidential email written by Jobs a year before his death was presented during the proceedings of the Apple Inc. Notably, Jobs declares a "Holy War with Google" for and schedules a "new campus" for In March , Apple filed a patent for an augmented reality AR system that can identify objects in a live video stream and present information corresponding to these objects through a computer-generated information layer overlaid on top of the real-world image.

It also experienced a significant year-over-year increase in Mac sales. This was contrasted with a significant drop in iPod sales. Iovine felt that Beats had always "belonged" with Apple, as the company modeled itself after Apple's "unmatched ability to marry culture and technology. In January , it was announced that one billion Apple devices were in active use worldwide. On May 12, , Apple Inc. On June 6, , Forbes released their list of companies ranked on revenue generation. In the trailing fiscal year, Apple appeared on the list as the top tech company.

On April 6, , Apple launched Clips , an app that allows iPad and iPhone users to make and edit videos. The app provides a way to produce short videos to share with other users on the Messages app, Instagram , Facebook and other social networks.

Apple also introduced Live Titles for Clips that allows users to add live animated captions and titles using their voice. In May , Apple refreshed two of its website designs.

Their public relations "Apple Press Info" website was changed to an "Apple Newsroom" site, featuring a greater emphasis on imagery and therefore lower information density, and combines press releases, news items, and photos. Its "Apple Leadership" overview of company executives was also refreshed, adding a simpler layout with a prominent header image and two-column text fields. Apple purchased Akonia Holographics in August The company makes lenses for augmented reality goggles.

On October 23, , Apple introduced the iPod digital music player. Several updated models have since been introduced, and the iPod brand is now the market leader in portable music players by a significant margin. It also includes web-based and Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather.

The iPhone features a 3. The flat silver back and large antenna square of the original model were eliminated in favor of a glossy, curved black or white back. Software capabilities were improved with the release of the App Store , which provided iPhone-compatible applications to download. On April 24, , the App Store [] surpassed one billion downloads. It provided an incremental update to the device, including faster internal components, support for faster 3G speeds, video recording capability, and voice control.

Shortly after its release, reception issues were discovered by consumers, due to the stainless steel band around the edge of the device, which also serves as the phone's cellular signal and Wi-Fi antenna. The issue was corrected by a "Bumper Case" distributed by Apple for free to all owners for a few months. In June , Apple overtook Nokia to become the world's biggest smartphone maker by volume.

On September 12, , Apple introduced the iPhone 5. A patent filed in July revealed the development of a new iPhone battery system that uses location data in combination with data on the user's habits to moderate the handsets power settings accordingly. Apple is working towards a power management system that will provide features such as the ability of the iPhone to estimate the length of time a user will be away from a power source to modify energy usage and a detection function that adjusts the charging rate to best suit the type of power source that is being used.

In a March interview, Apple designer Jonathan Ive used the iPhone as an example of Apple's ethos of creating high-quality, life-changing products. He explained that the phones are comparatively expensive due to the intensive effort that is used to make them:. We don't take so long and make the way we make for fiscal reasons The body is made from a single piece of machined aluminium The whole thing is polished first to a mirror finish and then is very finely textured, except for the Apple logo.

The chamfers [smoothed-off edges] are cut with diamond-tipped cutters. The cutters don't usually last very long, so we had to figure out a way of mass-manufacturing long-lasting ones. The camera cover is sapphire crystal.

Look at the details around the SIM-card slot. On September 9, , Apple introduced the iPhone 6 , alongside the iPhone 6 Plus that both have screen sizes over 4-inches. In July , Apple announced that one billion iPhones had been sold.

On September 7, , Apple introduced the iPhone 7 and the iPhone 7 Plus , which feature improved system and graphics performance, add water resistance, a new rear dual-camera system on the 7 Plus model, and, controversially, remove the 3. On September 12, , Apple introduced the iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus , standing as evolutionary updates to its previous phones with a faster processor, improved display technology, upgraded camera systems and wireless charging.

The iPhone XR comes in an all-screen glass and aluminium design with the most advanced LCD in a smartphone featuring a 6. On January 27, , Apple introduced their much-anticipated media tablet , the iPad. Content is downloadable via Wi-Fi and optional 3G service or synced through the user's computer. On March 2, , Apple introduced the iPad 2 , which had a faster processor and a camera on the front and back. The third-generation iPad was released on March 7, , and marketed as " the new iPad ".

The dimensions and form factor remained relatively unchanged, with the new iPad being a fraction thicker and heavier than the previous version and featuring minor positioning changes. On October 23, , Apple's fourth-generation iPad came out, marketed as the " iPad with Retina display ". It added the upgraded A6X processor and replaced the traditional pin dock connector with the all-digital Lightning connector.

It featured a reduced 7. The iPad Air 2 was unveiled on October 16, It added better graphics and central processing and a camera burst mode as well as minor updates. The iPad Mini 3 was unveiled at the same time.

Since its launch, iPad users have downloaded over three billion apps. The original Apple Watch smartwatch was announced by Tim Cook on September 9, , being introduced as a product with health and fitness-tracking. The second generation of Apple Watch, Apple Watch Series 2 , was released in September , featuring greater water resistance, a faster processor, and brighter display. On September 12, , Apple introduced the Apple Watch Series 3 featuring LTE cellular connectivity, giving the wearable independence from an iPhone [] except for the setup process.

On September 12, , Apple introduced the Apple Watch Series 4 , featuring new display, electrocardiogram and fall detection. At the Macworld conference, Jobs demonstrated the Apple TV previously known as the iTV , [] a set-top video device intended to bridge the sale of content from iTunes with high-definition televisions.

The device links up to a user's TV and syncs, either via Wi-Fi or a wired network, with one computer's iTunes library and streams content from an additional four. It has HDMI out as the only video output source.

Features include access to the iTunes Store to rent movies and TV shows purchasing has been discontinued , streaming from internet video sources, including YouTube and Netflix , and media streaming from an iTunes library. A third generation of the device was introduced at an Apple event on March 7, , with new features such as higher resolution p and a new user interface.

The release also coincided with the opening of a separate Apple TV App Store and a new Siri Remote with a glass touchpad , gyroscope , and microphone. The 4K model also has support for high dynamic range. Apple's first smart speaker, the HomePod was released on February 9, after being delayed from its initial December release.

It also features 7 tweeters in the base, a four-inch woofer in the top, and six microphones for voice control and acoustic optimization [] [] [] On September 12, , Apple announced that HomePod is adding new features—search by lyrics, set multiple timers, make and receive phone calls, Find My iPhone, Siri Shortcuts—and Siri languages.

For iOS and macOS, Apple also develops its own software titles, including Pages for writing, Numbers for spreadsheets, and Keynote for presentations, as part of its iWork productivity suite. Apple's range of server software includes the operating system macOS Server ; [] Apple Remote Desktop , a remote systems management application; [] and Xsan , a storage area network file system.

Apple also offers online services with iCloud , which provides cloud storage and synchronization for a wide range of user data, including documents, photos, music, device backups, and application data, [] and Apple Music , its music and video streaming service. According to the Sydney Morning Herald , Apple wants to start producing an electric car with autonomous driving as soon as As of June 6, , Apple's solar farms in California and Nevada have been declared to provide Apple will use the methane emissions to generate electricity.

According to Steve Jobs, the company's name was inspired by his visit to an apple farm while on a fruitarian diet. Jobs thought the name "Apple" was "fun, spirited and not intimidating".

It was almost immediately replaced by Rob Janoff 's "rainbow Apple", the now-familiar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it. Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic themes for the "bitten" logo, and Jobs immediately took a liking to it. However, Jobs insisted that the logo be colorized to humanize the company. On August 27, [] the year following the introduction of the iMac G3 , Apple officially dropped the rainbow scheme and began to use monochromatic logos nearly identical in shape to the previous rainbow incarnation.

An Aqua -themed version of the monochrome logo was used from to , and a glass-themed version was used from to This resulted in a series of lawsuits and tension between the two companies. These issues ended with the settling of their lawsuit in Apple's first slogan, " Byte into an Apple", was coined in the late s. From the introduction of the Macintosh in , with the Super Bowl commercial to the more modern ' Get a Mac ' adverts, Apple has been recognized for its efforts towards effective advertising and marketing for its products.

However, claims made by later campaigns were criticized , [] particularly the Power Mac ads. Apple owns a YouTube channel where they release advertisements, tips, and introductions for their devices.

Apple customers gained a reputation for devotion and loyalty early in the company's history. BYTE in stated that []. There are two kinds of people in the world: Both groups are right. Nature has suspended the principle of noncontradiction where Apple is concerned. Apple is more than just a company because its founding has some of the qualities of myth Apple is two guys in a garage undertaking the mission of bringing computing power, once reserved for big corporations, to ordinary individuals with ordinary budgets.

The company's growth from two guys to a billion-dollar corporation exemplifies the American Dream. Apple evangelists were actively engaged by the company at one time, but this was after the phenomenon had already been firmly established. Apple evangelist Guy Kawasaki has called the brand fanaticism "something that was stumbled upon," [] while Ive explained in that "People have an incredibly personal relationship" with Apple's products.

Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in , and in the world from to The New York Times in stated that "Apple above all else is a marketing company".

It was the marketing company of the decade. The research indicated that this correlation could stem from the fact that on average Apple Inc. What people are responding to is much bigger than the object. They are responding to something rare—a group of people who do more than simply make something work, they make the very best products they possibly can.

It's a demonstration against thoughtlessness and carelessness. The Apple website home page has been used to commemorate, or pay tribute to, milestones and events outside of Apple's product offerings:. Apple has a satellite campus in neighboring Sunnyvale, California , where it houses a testing and research laboratory. In , Apple announced its intention to build a second campus in Cupertino about 1 mile 1. The new campus is planned to house up to 13, employees in one central, four-storied, circular building surrounded by extensive landscape.

The expansion consists of two locations, with one having 1. At its smaller campus, engineers work on next-generation processor chips to run in future Apple products. In February , Apple opened their new ,square-foot headquarters in Herzliya , Israel , which will accommodate approximately employees.

This opening was Apple's third office located within Israel; the first, also in Herzliya, was obtained as part of the Anobit acquisition, and the other is a research center in Haifa. The first Apple Stores were originally opened as two locations in May by then- CEO Steve Jobs, [] after years of attempting but failing store-within-a-store concepts. In addition to purchasing products, consumers can get advice and help from "Creative Pros" — individuals with specialized knowledge of creative arts; get product support in a tree-lined Genius Grove; and attend sessions, conferences and community events, [] [] with Ahrendts commenting that the goal is to make Apple Stores into "town squares", a place where people naturally meet up and spend time.

Many Apple Stores are located inside shopping malls, but Apple has built several stand-alone "flagship" stores in high-profile locations. Apple's new store design in Union Square , San Francisco. Fifth Avenue , New York City. IFC mall store in Hong Kong. TsUM store in Moscow. Apple was one of several highly successful companies founded in the s that bucked the traditional notions of corporate culture.

Jobs often walked around the office barefoot even after Apple became a Fortune company. By the time of the "" television commercial, Apple's informal culture had become a key trait that differentiated it from its competitors.

As the company has grown and been led by a series of differently opinionated chief executives, it has arguably lost some of its original character. Nonetheless, it has maintained a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that reliably attracts talented workers, particularly after Jobs returned to the company.

Numerous Apple employees have stated that projects without Jobs's involvement often took longer than projects with it. To recognize the best of its employees, Apple created the Apple Fellows program which awards individuals who make extraordinary technical or leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company. At Apple, employees are specialists who are not exposed to functions outside their area of expertise.

Jobs saw this as a means of having "best-in-class" employees in every role. For instance, Ron Johnson —Senior Vice President of Retail Operations until November 1, —was responsible for site selection, in-store service, and store layout, yet had no control of the inventory in his stores this was done by Cook, who had a background in supply-chain management.

Each project has a "directly responsible individual," or "DRI" in Apple jargon. The company typically grants stock options to executives every other year. Apple does not specify how many of its employees work in retail, though its SEC filing put the number at approximately half of its employee base. In December , Glassdoor named Facebook the best place to work, according to reviews from anonymous employees, with Apple dropping to 48th place, having originally entered at rank 19 in , peaking at rank 10 in , and falling down the ranks in subsequent years.

An editorial article in The Verge in September by technology journalist Thomas Ricker explored some of the public's perceived lack of innovation at Apple in recent years, specifically stating that Samsung has "matched and even surpassed Apple in terms of smartphone industrial design" and citing the belief that Apple is incapable of producing another breakthrough moment in technology with its products.

He goes on to write that the criticism focuses on individual pieces of hardware rather than the ecosystem as a whole, stating "Yes, iteration is boring. But it's also how Apple does business. He acknowledges that people are wishing for the "excitement of revolution", but argues that people want "the comfort that comes with harmony". Furthermore, he writes that "a device is only the starting point of an experience that will ultimately be ruled by the ecosystem in which it was spawned", referring to how decent hardware products can still fail without a proper ecosystem specifically mentioning that Walkman didn't have an ecosystem to keep users from leaving once something better came along , but how Apple devices in different hardware segments are able to communicate and cooperate through the iCloud cloud service with features including Universal Clipboard in which text copied on one device can be pasted on a different device as well as inter-connected device functionality including Auto Unlock in which an Apple Watch can unlock a Mac in close proximity.

He argues that Apple's ecosystem is its greatest innovation. The Wall Street Journal reported in June that Apple's increased reliance on Siri , its virtual personal assistant , has raised questions about how much Apple can actually accomplish in terms of functionality.

Whereas Google and Amazon make use of big data and analyze customer information to personalize results, Apple has a strong pro-privacy stance , intentionally not retaining user data. The report further claims that development on Siri has suffered due to team members and executives leaving the company for competitors, a lack of ambitious goals, and shifting strategies. Despite switching Siri's functions to machine learning and algorithms , which dramatically cut its error rate, the company reportedly still failed to anticipate the popularity of Amazon's Echo , which features the Alexa personal assistant.

Improvements to Siri stalled, executives clashed, and there were disagreements over the restrictions imposed on third-party app interactions. While Apple acquired an England-based startup specializing in conversational assistants, Google's Assistant had already become capable of helping users select Wi-Fi networks by voice, and Siri was lagging in functionality.

The former had experienced a severe security vulnerability, in which Macs running the then-latest macOS High Sierra software were vulnerable to a bug that let anyone gain administrator privileges by entering "root" as the username in system prompts, leaving the password field empty and twice clicking "unlock", gaining full access.

Not to say that things didn't go wrong under his watch, but product announcements and launches felt a lot tighter for sure, as did the overall quality of what Apple was releasing.

The company's manufacturing, procurement, and logistics enable it to execute massive product launches without having to maintain large, profit-sapping inventories. In , Apple's profit margins were 40 percent, compared with between 10 and 20 percent for most other hardware companies. Cook's catchphrase to describe his focus on the company's operational arm is: During the Mac's early history Apple generally refused to adopt prevailing industry standards for hardware, instead creating their own.

Apple has gradually expanded its efforts in getting its products into the Indian market. In July , during a conference call with investors, CEO Tim Cook said that he "[loves] India", but that Apple saw larger opportunities outside the region. We're thinking about, where are the opportunities across the U. The company advertised its products as being made in America until the late s; however, as a result of outsourcing initiatives in the s, almost all of its manufacturing is now handled abroad.

According to a report by The New York Times , Apple insiders "believe the vast scale of overseas factories, as well as the flexibility, diligence and industrial skills of foreign workers, have so outpaced their American counterparts that "Made in the U. In , the Mail on Sunday reported on the working conditions of the Chinese factories where contract manufacturers Foxconn and Inventec produced the iPod.

A little over half of the workers' earnings was required to pay for rent and food from the company. Apple immediately launched an investigation after the media report, and worked with their manufacturers to ensure acceptable working conditions. Yearly progress reports have been published since A team from Apple is independently evaluating the steps they are taking to address these tragic events and we will continue our ongoing inspections of the facilities where our products are made.

The statement was released after the results from the company's probe into its suppliers' labor practices were published in early Foxconn was not specifically named in the report, but Apple identified a series of serious labor violations of labor laws, including Apple's own rules, and some child labor existed in a number of factories. Also in , workers in China planned to sue iPhone contractors over poisoning by a cleaner used to clean LCD screens.

One worker claimed that he and his coworkers had not been informed of possible occupational illnesses. A BBC investigation found excessive hours and other problems persisted, despite Apple's promise to reform factory practice after the Foxconn suicides.

The Pegatron factory was once again the subject of review, as reporters gained access to the working conditions inside through recruitment as employees. While the BBC maintained that the experiences of its reporters showed that labor violations were continuing since , Apple publicly disagreed with the BBC and stated: In December , the Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights published a report which documented inhumane conditions for the 15, workers at a Zhen Ding Technology factory in Shenzhen, China, which serves as a major supplier of circuit boards for Apple's iPhone and iPad.

According to the report, workers are pressured into hour work weeks which leaves them so exhausted that they often sleep during lunch breaks. They are also made to reside in "primitive, dark and filthy dorms" where they sleep "on plywood, with six to ten workers in each crowded room.

In , Climate Counts , a nonprofit organization dedicated to directing consumers toward the greenest companies, gave Apple a score of 52 points out of a possible , which puts Apple in their top category "Striding". Each product receives a Gold, Silver, or Bronze rank depending on its efficiency and sustainability. Another partnership announced is with the World Wildlife Fund to preserve up to 1,, acres of forests in China.

Featured was the company's installation of a 40 MW solar power plant in the Sichuan province of China that was tailor-made to coexist with the indigenous yaks that eat hay produced on the land, by raising the panels to be several feet off of the ground so the yaks and their feed would be unharmed grazing beneath the array.

This installation alone compensates for more than all of the energy used in Apple's Stores and Offices in the whole of China, negating the company's energy carbon footprint in the country.

Liam was introduced to the world, an advanced robotic disassembler and sorter designed by Apple Engineers in California specifically for recycling outdated or broken iPhones. Reuses and recycles parts from traded in products. Apple announced on August 16, , that Lens Technology, one of its major suppliers in China, has committed to power all its glass production for Apple with percent renewable energy by The commitment is a large step in Apple's efforts to help manufacturers lower their carbon footprint in China.

The standard, which started in January , certifies that all manufacturing waste is reused , recycled , composted , or converted into energy when necessary. Since the program began, nearly, , metric tons of waste have been diverted from landfills. Following further campaigns by Greenpeace, [] in , Apple became the first electronics manufacturer to fully eliminate all polyvinyl chloride PVC and brominated flame retardants BFRs in its complete product line.

Allowing consumers to make informed purchasing decisions on the products they offer for sale. In November , Apple was featured in Greenpeace's Guide to Greener Electronics, which ranks electronics manufacturers on sustainability, climate and energy policy, and how "green" their products are. The company ranked fourth of fifteen electronics companies moving up five places from the previous year with a score of 4. However, the guide criticizes Apple on the Energy criteria for not seeking external verification of its greenhouse gas emissions data and for not setting out any targets to reduce emissions.

The green bond proceeds are dedicated to the financing of environmental projects. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue, the world's largest technology company by total assets , [] and the world's second-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung. In its fiscal year ending in September , Apple Inc. As of August 3, , Apple is the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization.

On August 2, , Apple became the first publicly traded U. Apple has created subsidiaries in low-tax places such as Ireland , the Netherlands , Luxembourg and the British Virgin Islands to cut the taxes it pays around the world. According to The New York Times, in the s Apple was among the first tech companies to designate overseas salespeople in high-tax countries in a manner that allowed the company to sell on behalf of low-tax subsidiaries on other continents, sidestepping income taxes.

In the late s, Apple was a pioneer of an accounting technique known as the " Double Irish with a Dutch sandwich ," which reduces taxes by routing profits through Irish subsidiaries and the Netherlands and then to the Caribbean. British Conservative Party Member of Parliament Charlie Elphicke published research on October 30, , [] which showed that some multinational companies, including Apple Inc.

He followed this research by calling on the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne to force these multinationals, which also included Google and The Coca-Cola Company , to state the effective rate of tax they pay on their UK revenues. Elphicke also said that government contracts should be withheld from multinationals who do not pay their fair share of UK tax. It was not until that Irish economists could definitively prove that the growth was due to Apple restructuring its controversial double Irish subsidiaries Apple Sales International , which Apple converted into a new Irish capital allowances for intangible assets tax scheme expires in January These are mainly held by institutional investors and funds.

Apple has been a participant in various legal proceedings and claims since it began operation. Some litigation examples include Apple v. Samsung , Apple v. Microsoft , Motorola Mobility v. Apple has also had to defend itself against charges on numerous occasions of violating intellectual property rights.

Most have been dismissed in the courts as shell companies known as patent trolls , with no evidence of actual use of patents in question. Apple has a notable pro-privacy stance, actively making privacy-conscious features and settings part of its conferences, promotional campaigns, and public image. That said, Apple aids law enforcement in criminal investigations by providing iCloud backups of users' devices, [] [] and the company's commitment to privacy has been questioned by its efforts to promote biometric authentication technology in its newer iPhone models, which don't have the same level of constitutional privacy as a passcode in the United States.

Apple contributes financially to fundraisers in times of natural disasters. Apple has been criticised for alleged unethical business practices such as anti-competitive behavior , rash litigation, [] and dubious tax tactics, production methods involving the use of sweatshop labor, [] [] [] customer service issues involving allegedly misleading warranties and insufficient data security , as well as its products' environmental footprint.

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Shazam Texture FileMaker Inc. History of Apple Inc. Timeline of Macintosh models. Timeline of the Apple II family. Power Mac was a line of Apple Macintosh workstation-class personal computers based on various models of PowerPC microprocessors that were developed from to Apple's transition to Intel processors.

Timeline of Apple Inc. Apple electric car project. First Apple logo —77 []. First official logo —98 []. Apple third logo —03 []. Current logo since []. Typography of Apple Inc. For the programming language, see Apple Logo. Apple Park and Apple Campus. Criticism of Apple Inc. EU illegal State aid case against Apple in Ireland. This section should include a better summary of Criticism of Apple Inc.

Summary style for information on how to properly incorporate it into this article's main text. Retrieved January 9, Retrieved August 2, Retrieved Apr 23, Retrieved July 9, The Sydney Morning Herald. Homebrew Computer Club meets for first time". Archived March 18, , at the Wayback Machine. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, Retrieved January 19, Archived from the original on March 26, Originally aired January 6, Apple becomes a corporation".

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Established in in California, Apple Inc. is a global designer, manufacturer and marketer of mobile communication and media devices, personal computers, and portable digital music players. Apple is the largest IT company in the world by revenue and total Continue reading →.

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Apple Company research papers discuss one of the most famous companies in the world, the producer of iPods, Mac computers and the iPhone. Apple Inc is American corporation, which focuses on the production of personal computers, tablet computers, music players, smart phones, computer software, etc. Apple is a pioneer in the branch of information technologies, personal computers, computer technologies and operation systems and can be called the most successful corporation .

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