This will cause starvation. He claims that for example many sub-Saharan nations are or will become stuck in demographic entrapment, instead of having a demographic transition.
For the world as a whole, the number of children born per woman decreased from 5. A breakdown by region is as follows:. Excluding the theoretical reversal in fertility decrease for high development, the projected world number of children born per woman for would be around 2. Some groups for example, the World Wide Fund for Nature   and Global Footprint Network have stated that the carrying capacity for the human population has been exceeded as measured using the Ecological Footprint.
In , WWF 's " Living Planet Report " stated that in order for all humans to live with the current consumption patterns of Europeans, we would be spending three times more than what the planet can renew.
But critics question the simplifications and statistical methods used in calculating Ecological Footprints. Therefore, Global Footprint Network and its partner organizations have engaged with national governments and international agencies to test the results — reviews have been produced by France, Germany, the European Commission, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Japan and the United Arab Emirates.
Other studies give particular attention to resource depletion and increased world affluence. In a study titled Food, Land, Population and the U. Many quantitative studies have estimated the world's carrying capacity for humans, that is, a limit to the world population. Some more problems associated with or exacerbated by human overpopulation and over-consumption are:. Many of these problems are explored in the dystopic science fiction film Soylent Green , where an overpopulated Earth suffers from food shortages, depleted resources and poverty and in the documentary " Aftermath: David Attenborough described the level of human population on the planet as a multiplier of all other environmental problems.
Most biologists and sociologists see overpopulation as a serious threat to the quality of human life. The effects of overpopulation are compounded by overconsumption.
According to Paul R. We want to build highways across the Serengeti to get more rare earth minerals for our cellphones. We grab all the fish from the sea, wreck the coral reefs and put carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. We have triggered a major extinction event A world population of around a billion would have an overall pro-life effect.
This could be supported for many millennia and sustain many more human lives in the long term compared with our current uncontrolled growth and prospect of sudden collapse If everyone consumed resources at the US level — which is what the world aspires to — you will need another four or five Earths. Some economists, such as Thomas Sowell  and Walter E. Williams  argue that third world poverty and famine are caused in part by bad government and bad economic policies.
Overpopulation does not depend only on the size or density of the population, but on the ratio of population to available sustainable resources. It also depends on how resources are managed and distributed throughout the population. The resources to be considered when evaluating whether an ecological niche is overpopulated include clean water , clean air, food, shelter, warmth, and other resources necessary to sustain life. If the quality of human life is addressed, there may be additional resources considered, such as medical care, education, proper sewage treatment , waste disposal and energy supplies.
Overpopulation places competitive stress on the basic life sustaining resources,  leading to a diminished quality of life. Directly related to maintaining the health of the human population is water supply, and it is one of the resources that experience the biggest strain. With the global population at about 7. Weather patterns, elevation, and climate all contribute to uneven distribution of fresh drinking water.
Without clean water, good health is not a viable option. Besides drinking, water is used to create sanitary living conditions and is the basis of creating a healthy environment fit to hold human life. In addition to drinking water, water is also used for bathing, washing clothes and dishes, flushing toilets, a variety of cleaning methods, recreation, watering lawns, and farm irrigation. Irrigation poses one of the largest problems, because without sufficient water to irrigate crops, the crops die and then there is the problem of food rations and starvation.
In addition to water needed for crops and food, there is limited land area dedicated to food production, and not much more that is suitable to be added.
Arable land, needed to sustain the growing population, is also a factor because land being under or over cultivated easily upsets the delicate balance of nutrition supply. There are also problems with location of arable land with regard to proximity to countries and relative population Bashford Access to nutrition is an important limiting factor in population sustainability and growth.
No increase in arable land added to the still increasing human population will eventually pose a serious conflict. Although plants produce 54 billion metric tons of carbohydrates per year, when the population is expected to grow to 9 billion by , the plants may not be able to keep up Biello.
Food supply is a primary example of how a resource reacts when its carrying capacity is exceeded. By trying to grow more and more crops off of the same amount of land, the soil becomes exhausted.
Because the soil is exhausted, it is then unable to produce the same amount of food as before, and is overall less productive. Therefore, by using resources beyond a sustainable level, the resource become nullified and ineffective, which further increases the disparity between the demand for a resource and the availability of a resource.
There must be a shift to provide adequate recovery time to each one of the supplies in demand to support contemporary human lifestyles. David Pimentel has stated that "With the imbalance growing between population numbers and vital life sustaining resources, humans must actively conserve cropland, freshwater, energy, and biological resources.
There is a need to develop renewable energy resources. Humans everywhere must understand that rapid population growth damages the Earth's resources and diminishes human well-being. Scientific Challenges in the Coming Century. All agree that the planet's booming population and rising standards of living are set to put unprecedented demands on the materials that only Earth itself can provide. On the other hand, some cornucopian researchers, such as Julian L. In a study, they concluded that "there are not and will never be too many people for the planet to feed" according to The Independent.
Ehrlich describe as 'turning the Earth into a giant human feedlot' could be severe. A large expansion of agriculture to provide growing populations with improved diets is likely to lead to further deforestation , loss of species , soil erosion , and pollution from pesticides and fertilizer runoff as farming intensifies and new land is brought into production.
According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment , a four-year research effort by 1, of the world's prominent scientists commissioned to measure the actual value of natural resources to humans and the world, "The structure of the world's ecosystems changed more rapidly in the second half of the twentieth century than at any time in recorded human history, and virtually all of Earth's ecosystems have now been significantly transformed through human actions.
Intensive use of ecosystems often produces the greatest short-term advantage, but excessive and unsustainable use can lead to losses in the long term.
A country could cut its forests and deplete its fisheries, and this would show only as a positive gain to GDP, despite the loss of capital assets. If the full economic value of ecosystems were taken into account in decision-making, their degradation could be significantly slowed down or even reversed.
Although all resources, whether mineral or other, are limited on the planet, there is a degree of self-correction whenever a scarcity or high-demand for a particular kind is experienced. For example, in known reserves of many natural resources were higher, and their prices lower, than in , despite higher demand and higher consumption.
Whenever a price spike would occur, the market tended to correct itself whether by substituting an equivalent resource or switching to a new technology. Fresh water supplies, on which agriculture depends, are running low worldwide.
Potential problems with dependence on desalination are reviewed below, however, the majority of the world's freshwater supply is contained in the polar icecaps, and underground river systems accessible through springs and wells. Fresh water can be obtained from salt water by desalination. For example, Malta derives two thirds of its freshwater by desalination. A number of nuclear powered desalination plants exist;   however, the high costs of desalination, especially for poor countries, make impractical the transport of large amounts of desalinated seawater to interiors of large countries.
Desalinated water is expensive in places that are both somewhat far from the sea and somewhat high, such as Riyadh and Harare. In other places, the dominant cost is desalination, not transport. This leads to somewhat lower costs in places like Beijing, Bangkok , Zaragoza , Phoenix , and, of course, coastal cities like Tripoli. Unfortunately, that includes some of the places with biggest water problems. The world's largest desalination plant is the Jebel Ali Desalination Plant Phase 2 in the United Arab Emirates , which can produce million cubic metres of water per year,  or about gallons per second.
A 17 January , article in the Wall Street Journal states, "Worldwide, 13, desalination plants produce more than 12 billion gallons of water a day, according to the International Desalination Association.
However, new data originating from the GRACE experiments and isotopic testing done by the IAEA show that the Nubian aquifer —which is under the largest, driest part of the earth's surface, has enough water in it to provide for "at least several centuries". In addition to this, new and highly detailed maps of the earth's underground reservoirs will be soon created from these technologies that will further allow proper budgeting of cheap water.
Some scientists argue that there is enough food to support the world population,   and some dispute this, particularly if sustainability is taken into account. Many countries rely heavily on imports.
In recent decades the US alone supplied almost half of world grain exports. A United Nations report says population growth is "the main force driving increases in agricultural demand" but "most recent expert assessments are cautiously optimistic about the ability of global food production to keep up with demand for the foreseeable future that is to say, until approximately or ", assuming declining population growth rates.
However, the observed figures for show an actual increase in absolute numbers of undernourished people in the world, million in versus million in The amounts of natural resources in this context are not necessarily fixed, and their distribution is not necessarily a zero-sum game.
For example, due to the Green Revolution and the fact that more and more land is appropriated each year from wild lands for agricultural purposes, the worldwide production of food had steadily increased up until World food production per person was considerably higher in than This suggests that Third World poverty and famine are caused by underdevelopment, not overpopulation. The number of people who are overweight has surpassed the number who are undernourished.
In a news story, MSNBC reported, "There are an estimated million undernourished people and more than a billion considered overweight worldwide.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations states in its report The State of Food Insecurity in the World , that while the number of undernourished people in the developing countries has declined by about three million, a smaller proportion of the populations of developing countries is undernourished today than in — The FAO also states "We have emphasized first and foremost that reducing hunger is no longer a question of means in the hands of the global community.
The world is richer today than it was ten years ago. There is more food available and still more could be produced without excessive upward pressure on prices.
The knowledge and resources to reduce hunger are there. What is lacking is sufficient political will to mobilize those resources to the benefit of the hungry. A virulent wheat disease could destroy most of the world's main wheat crops, leaving millions to starve. The fungus has spread from Africa to Iran , and may already be in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Food security will become more difficult to achieve as resources run out.
Resources in danger of becoming depleted include oil , phosphorus , grain , fish , and water. The Population Reference Bureau in the US reported that the population of Sub-Saharan Africa — the poorest region in the continent — is rising faster than most of the rest of the world, and that "Rapid population growth makes it difficult for economies to create enough jobs to lift large numbers of people out of poverty.
Hunger and malnutrition kill nearly 6 million children a year, and more people are malnourished in sub-Saharan Africa this decade than in the s, according to a report released by the Food and Agriculture Organization. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of malnourished people grew to According to a article from the BBC, China, the world's most populous country, suffers from an " obesity surge". The article stated that, "Altogether, around million people are thought to be overweight, Japan may face a food crisis that could reduce daily diets to the austere meals of the s, believes a senior government adviser.
Thinkers from a wide range of academic fields and political backgrounds—including agricultural scientist David Pimentel,  behavioral scientist Russell Hopfenberg,  right-wing anthropologist Virginia Abernethy ,  ecologist Garrett Hardin ,  ecologist and anthropologist Peter Farb , journalist Richard Manning ,  environmental biologist Alan D.
Thornhill,  cultural critic and writer Daniel Quinn ,  and anarcho-primitivist John Zerzan ,  —propose that, like all other animal populations, human populations predictably grow and shrink according to their available food supply, growing during an abundance of food and shrinking in times of scarcity. Proponents of this theory argue that every time food production is increased, the population grows.
Most human populations throughout history validate this theory, as does the overall current global population. Populations of hunter-gatherers fluctuate in accordance with the amount of available food. The world human population began increasing after the Neolithic Revolution and its increased food supply. This was, subsequent to the Green Revolution , followed by even more severely accelerated population growth, which continues today.
Often, wealthier countries send their surplus food resources to the aid of starving communities; however, proponents of this theory argue that this seemingly beneficial notion only results in further harm to those communities in the long run.
Peter Farb, for example, has commented on the paradox that "intensification of production to feed an increased population leads to a still greater increase in population. Critics of this theory point out that, in the modern era, birth rates are lowest in the developed nations , which also have the highest access to food.
In fact, some developed countries have both a diminishing population and an abundant food supply. The United Nations projects that the population of 51 countries or areas, including Germany, Italy, Japan, and most of the states of the former Soviet Union, is expected to be lower in than in However, the global population as a whole still grows in accordance with the total food supply and many of these wealthier countries are major exporters of food to poorer populations, so that, "it is through exports from food-rich to food-poor areas Allaby, ; Pimentel et al.
Regardless of criticisms against the theory that population is a function of food availability, the human population is, on the global scale, undeniably increasing,  as is the net quantity of human food produced — a pattern that has been true for roughly 10, years, since the human development of agriculture. The fact that some affluent countries demonstrate negative population growth fails to discredit the theory as whole, since the world has become a globalized system with food moving across national borders from areas of abundance to areas of scarcity.
Hopfenberg and Pimentel's findings support both this  and Quinn's direct accusation that "First World farmers are fueling the Third World population explosion. Water deficits , which are already spurring heavy grain imports in numerous smaller countries, may soon do the same in larger countries, such as China or India, if technology is not used.
Other countries affected include Pakistan, Iran , and Mexico. This overdrafting is already leading to water scarcity and cutbacks in grain harvest. Even with the overpumping of its aquifers , China has developed a grain deficit. This effect has contributed in driving grain prices upward. Most of the 3 billion people projected to be added worldwide by mid-century will be born in countries already experiencing water shortages.
Desalination is also considered a viable and effective solution to the problem of water shortages. The World Resources Institute states that "Agricultural conversion to croplands and managed pastures has affected some 3. All totaled, agriculture has displaced one-third of temperate and tropical forests and one-quarter of natural grasslands.
Global warming may cause flooding of many of the most productive agricultural areas. Thus, available useful land may become a limiting factor. By most estimates, at least half of cultivable land is already being farmed, and there are concerns that the remaining reserves are greatly overestimated. High crop yield vegetables like potatoes and lettuce [ citation needed ] use less space on inedible plant parts, like stalks, husks, vines, and inedible leaves. New varieties of selectively bred and hybrid plants have larger edible parts fruit, vegetable, grain and smaller inedible parts; however, many of these gain of agricultural technology are now historic, and new advances are more difficult to achieve.
With new technologies, it is possible to grow crops on some marginal land under certain conditions. Aquaculture could theoretically increase available area. Hydroponics and food from bacteria and fungi, like quorn , may allow the growing of food without having to consider land quality, climate, or even available sunlight, although such a process may be very energy-intensive.
Some argue that not all arable land will remain productive if used for agriculture because some marginal land can only be made to produce food by unsustainable practices like slash-and-burn agriculture.
Even with the modern techniques of agriculture, the sustainability of production is in question. Some countries, such as the United Arab Emirates and particularly the Emirate of Dubai have constructed large artificial islands, or have created large dam and dike systems, like the Netherlands, which reclaim land from the sea to increase their total land area.
Population optimists have been criticized for failing to take into account the depletion of fossil fuels required for the production of fertilizers , tillage, transportation, etc. The report Peaking of World Oil Production: Impacts, Mitigation, and Risk Management , commonly referred to as the Hirsch report , was created by request for the US Department of Energy and published in February It concludes that world oil peaking is going to happen, and will likely be abrupt.
Initiating a mitigation crash program 20 years before peaking appears to offer the possibility of avoiding a world liquid fuels shortfall for the forecast period. Optimists counter that fossil fuels will be sufficient until the development and implementation of suitable replacement technologies—such as nuclear power or various sources of renewable energy —occurs. With increasing awareness about global warming , the question of peak oil has become less relevant.
The United Nations indicates that about million people are malnourished or starving ,  and 1. The reductions in standard of living have been deeper and more long-lasting than what was seen in the industrialised countries during the depression in the s. As a result, the income for more than one billion people has fallen below the level that was reached 10, 20 or 30 years ago". Similarly, although the proportion of "starving" people in sub-Saharan Africa has decreased, the absolute number of starving people has increased due to population growth.
To keep the numbers of starving constant, the percentage would have dropped by more than half. As of , there were countries in the world with more than five million people.
Overpopulation has substantially adversely impacted the environment of Earth starting at least as early as the 20th century. Environmental author Jeremy Rifkin has said that "our burgeoning population and urban way of life have been purchased at the expense of vast ecosystems and habitats.
It's no accident that as we celebrate the urbanization of the world, we are quickly approaching another historic watershed: Clearly, the past half century has been a traumatic one, as the collective impact of human numbers, affluence consumption per individual and our choices of technology continue to exploit rapidly an increasing proportion of the world's resources at an unsustainable rate.
During a remarkably short period of time, we have lost a quarter of the world's topsoil and a fifth of its agricultural land, altered the composition of the atmosphere profoundly, and destroyed a major proportion of our forests and other natural habitats without replacing them.
Worst of all, we have driven the rate of biological extinction , the permanent loss of species, up several hundred times beyond its historical levels, and are threatened with the loss of a majority of all species by the end of the 21st century. Further, even in countries which have both large population growth and major ecological problems, it is not necessarily true that curbing the population growth will make a major contribution towards resolving all environmental problems.
The Worldwatch Institute said in that the booming economies of China and India are "planetary powers that are shaping the global biosphere". The world's ecological capacity is simply insufficient to satisfy the ambitions of China, India, Japan, Europe and the United States as well as the aspirations of the rest of the world in a sustainable way. According to Worldwatch Institute , if China and India were to consume as much resources per capita as the United States, in they would each require a full planet Earth to meet their needs.
Many studies link population growth with emissions and the effect of climate change. It has been suggested  that overpopulation leads to increased levels of tensions both between and within countries.
Modern usage of the term "lebensraum" supports the idea that overpopulation may promote warfare through fear of resource scarcity and increasing numbers of youth lacking the opportunity to engage in peaceful employment the youth bulge theory. The hypothesis that population pressure causes increased warfare has been recently criticized on empirical grounds.
Two studies focusing on specific historical societies and analyses of cross-cultural data have failed to find positive correlation between population density and incidence of warfare. Andrey Korotayev , in collaboration with Peter Turchin , has shown that such negative results do not falsify the population-warfare hypothesis.
Population and warfare are dynamical variables, and if their interaction causes sustained oscillations, then we do not in general expect to find strong correlation between the two variables measured at the same time that is, unlagged. Korotayev and Turchin have explored mathematically what the dynamical patterns of interaction between population and warfare focusing on internal warfare might be in both stateless and state societies.
Next, they have tested the model predictions in several empirical case studies: Their empirical results have supported the population-warfare theory: Furthermore, they have demonstrated that in the agrarian societies the rates of change of the two variables behave precisely as predicted by the theory: Several solutions and mitigation measures have the potential to reduce overpopulation. Some solutions are to be applied on a global planetary level e.
Some of the proposed mitigations aim to help implement new social, cultural, behavioral and political norms to replace or significantly modify current norms. For example, in societies like China, the government has put policies in place that regulate the number of children allowed to a couple. Other societies have implemented social marketing strategies in order to educate the public on overpopulation effects. Such prompts work to introduce the problem so that new or modified social norms are easier to implement.
Certain government policies are making it easier and more socially acceptable to use contraception and abortion methods. An example of a country whose laws and norms are hindering the global effort to slow population growth is Afghanistan. Under this law, women have no right to deny their husbands sex unless they are ill, and can be denied food if they do.
Scientists and technologists including e. Huesemann, Huesemann, Ehrlich and Ehrlich caution that science and technology, as currently practiced, cannot solve the serious problems global human society faces, and that a cultural-social-political shift is needed to reorient science and technology in a more socially responsible and environmentally sustainable direction.
One option is to focus on education about overpopulation, family planning , and birth control methods, and to make birth-control devices like male and female condoms , contraceptive pills and intrauterine devices easily available.
In the United States, in , almost half of pregnancies were unintended. Women's rights and their reproductive rights in particular are issues regarded to have vital importance in the debate. Egypt announced a program to reduce its overpopulation by family planning education and putting women in the workforce. Several scientists including e. Paul and Anne Ehrlich and Gretchen Daily proposed that humanity should work at stabilizing its absolute numbers, as a starting point towards beginning the process of reducing the total numbers.
They suggested the following solutions and policies: Business magnate Ted Turner proposed a "voluntary, non-imposed" one-child-per-family cultural norm. A " pledge two or fewer " campaign is run by Population Matters a UK population concern organisation , in which people are encouraged to limit themselves to small family size. Population planning that is intended to reduce population size or growth rate may promote or enforce one or more of the following practices, although there are other methods as well:.
The method s chosen can be strongly influenced by the cultural and religious beliefs of community members. Overpopulation can be mitigated by birth control ; some nations, like the People's Republic of China, use strict measures to reduce birth rates. Religious and ideological opposition to birth control has been cited as a factor contributing to overpopulation and poverty. Sanjay Gandhi , son of late Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi , implemented a forced sterilization programme between and Officially, men with two children or more had to submit to sterilization, but there was a greater focus on sterilizing women than sterilizing men.
Some unmarried young men and political opponents may also have been sterilized [ citation needed ]. This program is still remembered and criticized in India, and is blamed for creating a public aversion to family planning , which hampered government programs for decades. Urban designer Michael E.
Arth has proposed a "choice-based, marketable birth license plan" he calls " birth credits ". If that allotment was determined to be one child, for example, then the first child would be free, and the market would determine what the license fee for each additional child would cost.
Extra credits would expire after a certain time, so these credits could not be hoarded by speculators. The actual cost of the credits would only be a fraction of the actual cost of having and raising a child , so the credits would serve more as a wake-up call to women who might otherwise produce children without seriously considering the long term consequences to themselves or society. Such compensation has been offered in the past by the government of India.
Most of the world's expected population increase will be in Africa and southern Asia. Africa's population is expected to rise from the current one billion to four billion by , and Asia could add another billion in the same period. For countries with a wide base in their population pyramid it will take a generation for the people who are of child bearing age to have their families.
Arth has suggested that the focus should be on the developed countries and that some combination of birth credits and additional compensation supplied by the developed countries could rapidly lead to zero population growth while also quickly raising the standard of living in developing countries.
Various scientists and science fiction authors have contemplated that overpopulation on Earth may be remedied in the future by the use of extraterrestrial settlements. In the s, Gerard K. O'Neill suggested building space habitats that could support 30, times the carrying capacity of Earth using just the asteroid belt, and that the Solar System as a whole could sustain current population growth rates for a thousand years.
Lewis suggests that the resources of the solar system could support 10 quadrillion 10 16 people. In an interview, Stephen Hawking claimed that overpopulation is a threat to human existence and "our only chance of long-term survival is not to remain inward looking on planet Earth but to spread out into space.
Eric Drexler , famous inventor of the futuristic concept of molecular nanotechnology , has suggested in Engines of Creation that colonizing space will mean breaking the Malthusian limits to growth for the human species. It may be possible for other parts of the Solar System to be inhabited by humanity at some point in the future.
Geoffrey Landis of NASA 's Glenn Research Center in particular has pointed out that "[at] cloud-top level, Venus is the paradise planet", as one could construct aerostat habitats and floating cities there easily, based on the concept that breathable air is a lifting gas in the dense Venusian atmosphere. Venus would, like also Saturn , Uranus , and Neptune , in the upper layers of their atmospheres, even afford a gravitation almost exactly as strong as that on Earth see colonization of Venus.
Many science fiction authors, including Carl Sagan , Arthur C. Clarke ,  and Isaac Asimov ,  have argued that shipping any excess population into space is not a viable solution to human overpopulation. According to Clarke, "the population battle must be fought or won here on Earth".
O'Neill 's calculations show that Earth could offload all new population growth with a launch services industry about the same size as the current airline industry. The StarTram concept, by James R. Powell the co-inventor of maglev transport and others, envisions a capability to send up to 4 million people a decade to space per facility.
Despite the increase in population density within cities and the emergence of megacities , UN Habitat states in its reports that urbanization may be the best compromise in the face of global population growth. Afghanistan shows a classic youth bulge.
Angola shows the same, even more pronounced. China had an extreme youth bulge until the s, when it sharply curbed partly as an effect of the one-child policy. Compare the population pyramid of the USA which was bulging until the s and has steadily slimmed since. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The condition where human numbers exceed the short or long-term carrying capacity of the environment. For the general concept of overpopulation, see Overpopulation.
I believe that our population is only strength if it is well educated, if it is healthy, if the economy in which they reside has the capacity to provide them with jobs and the people living in the households earn good income and are able to afford the goods and services provided by businesses.
In my opinion, the biggest problem we have in Nigeria is our population - uncontrolled population growth. Projections of population growth. Demographic transition and Sub-replacement fertility.
This article appears to contradict the article Carrying capacity. Please see discussion on the linked talk page. Please do not remove this message until the contradictions are resolved. Overconsumption and Human impact on the environment. The Yangtze River dolphin , Atlantic gray whale , West African black rhino , Merriam's elk , California grizzly bear , silver trout , blue pike and dusky seaside sparrow are all victims of human overpopulation.
Youth unemployment is also soaring, with the economy unable to absorb the spiraling numbers of those seeking to enter the work force.
Many young people do not have the skills to match the needs of the Egyptian market, and the economy is small, weak and insufficiently industrialized Instead of being something productive, the population growth is a barrel of explosives. Demographic transition and Income and fertility. Accelerating change population growth is a factor Antinatalism Behavioral sink , a rat over-population experiment Demographic trap Earth system science Ethnic bioweapon Eugenics Fertility and intelligence Gaia hypothesis Global catastrophic risk Human migration Human population planning List of countries and dependencies by population List of organisations campaigning for population stabilisation List of people that have expressed views relating to overpopulation as a problem List of population concern organizations Malthusianism Malthusian trap Overexploitation Overshoot population People smuggling Planetary boundaries Population ageing Reserve army of labour Societal collapse Tragedy of the commons Voluntary Human Extinction Movement In documentary and art films Koyaanisqatsi What a Way to Go: Retrieved 20 July When is an area overpopulated?
When its population cannot be maintained without rapidly depleting nonrenewable resources  or converting renewable resources into nonrenewable ones and without decreasing the capacity of the environment to support the population. In short, if the long-term carrying capacity of an area is clearly being degraded by its current human occupants, that area is overpopulated. Retrieved 23 January Archived from the original on 20 December UN sets out challenges".
Explosive Population Growth in Tropical Africa: Retrieved 1 August Archived from the original on 7 July The Revision" PDF. Archived from the original on 10 February Retrieved 11 July The Theology of Tertullian, Chapter 5 pp. The Global Population Challenge An Essay on the Principle of Population.
Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. Retrieved 19 December Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 2 September Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Retrieved 22 May Council For Economic Education. Retrieved 3 November Archived from the original on 13 October Readings and Maps ".
Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia ". Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 15 August Land Shortage, Famine, Rural Poverty ". Asia for Educators, Columbia University. Smallpox — and other Deadly Eurasian Germs ". In this paper, using an political-intellectual history approach, I explore how the population question intersected with interrelated development issues in Latin America in the first half of the twentieth century: With this history in mind, we can trace alternative intellectual roots of political ecology's critique of neo-Malthusianism and other deterministic environment-development theories.
Thanos and the Population Bomb. Overpopulation - Problems and Solutions. Identify whether Kim McCone believes in the common Celtic as an ancestor language of modern Irish and whether he thinks the Celts invaded Ireland. Today these questions of race and Today these questions of race and language of the peoples of these islands have been brought into question by Chapman and James and other scholars who have questioned the time span where the name 'Celt' had been used.
They argued that the name Celt had been used in ancient times and reappeared again in modern times and why was it missing from the middle ages. Other Greek writers such as Xenophon, Polybious and Poseidonius attested to the name of these peoples as Celts. Caesar in his writings states " we call them Gauls, though in their own language they are called Celts " and also according to Caesar, Vercingetorix who was the commander of the Gauls had a father was named Celtillus.
In the third century AD the Gaulish incursions into Greece under the leadership of Brennos culminated with the attack and sacking of Delphi. The native Irish referred to themselves as Gaedhil while the native Welshmen call themselves Cymri and the Bretons are Breizhiz.
Taking into account the proximity of European continent to Ireland and Britain, it's plausible that the Gauls crossed over and occupied its neighbouring Islands. The word " wild " was used to describe the Irish raiders who attacked and plundered Roman Britain as attested to by the Roman historian Marcellinus in the late 4 th century. The Scoti and Aticolli appears to be a ruling Irish class and its vassals during the 4 th century AD which was rather like the Norman lords and their Anglo-Saxon followers of the 11th and 12 th century.
This would account for both the Aticolli and Scoti on Irish expeditions and account for why the Aticolli were mercenaries in the Roman military, since paid service would have appealed to the underprivileged. America and the world are in the process of collapse from excessive population growth, most of it for the last century, and now all of it, due to 3rd world people. Consumption of resources and the addition of 4 billion more ca. Billions will die and nuclear war is all but certain.
In America, this is being hugely accelerated by massive immigration and immigrant reproduction, combined with abuses made possible by democracy. Depraved human nature inexorably turns the dream of democracy and diversity into a nightmare of crime and poverty. China will continue to overwhelm America and the world, as long as it maintains the dictatorship which limits selfishness.
The root cause of collapse is the inability of our innate psychology to adapt to the modern world, which leads people to treat unrelated persons as though they had common interests.
The idea of human rights is an evil fantasy promoted by leftists to draw attention away from the merciless destruction of the earth by unrestrained 3rd world motherhood. This, plus ignorance of basic biology and psychology, leads to the social engineering delusions of the partially educated who control democratic societies.
Few understand that if you help one person you harm someone else—there is no free lunch and every single item anyone consumes destroys the earth beyond repair. Consequently, social policies everywhere are unsustainable and one by one all societies without stringent controls on selfishness will collapse into anarchy or dictatorship. The most basic facts, almost never mentioned, are that there are not enough resources in America or the world to lift a significant percentage of the poor out of poverty and keep them there.
The attempt to do this is bankrupting America and destroying the world. And now, as always, by far the greatest enemy of the poor is other poor and not the rich. Without dramatic and immediate changes, there is no hope for preventing the collapse of America, or any country that follows a democratic system. Overpopulation, or the stories we tell ourselves. Short article published as part of the Huffington Post's Apocalypse series. While the idea of colonising other worlds is as old as humankind itself and while with the advent of the space age this idea has fortified, in the last couple of years plans to build and maintain colonies on Moon or Mars have become more While the idea of colonising other worlds is as old as humankind itself and while with the advent of the space age this idea has fortified, in the last couple of years plans to build and maintain colonies on Moon or Mars have become more concrete.
Recent decades have seen significant shifts in our awareness of Earth's systems and capacities, as well as human impacts on them eg. Population growth, intense resource-exploitation, and pollution have caused wide-scale ecosystem degradation and global climate change Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change In this time, the commercial space sector has also risen to prominence.
Particularly since , when the Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act was signed, there has been increased emphasis on government-commercial partnerships in the US space sector, and increased visibility of commercial space exploration.
In this paper, we seek to evaluate such a claim and highlight realistic limitations and possibilities around the idea of large-scale space colonisation as solution to key global challenges.
We assume a healthy and ecologically sustainable population on Earth to be at billion inhabitants at the current per capita consumption of food, water and resources. Therefore we aim to theoretically settle 4 billion people to off-planet colonies and try to estimate if settling them off would be feasible at all, whether the emigration rate could compensate the birthrate, how many launches would be necessary and what they would require in terms of resources both in terms of fuel for the space transfer and in terms of food for the survival of the passengers , and what the impacts for the remaining population would be, assuming the use of state-of-the-art propellants and technologies.
Educational intervention on dog sterilization and retention in Taiwan. Malthusian cycles are political-demographic cycles that were typical for complex premodern societies.
Due to a number of mechanisms, within the premodern social systems and some would argue even in the 21st century , population growth
New research suggests that population growth is driving numerous global health crises, yet it's rarely factored into the equation. Overpopulation: An Overlooked Factor in Global Health.
Aug 15, · Browse Overpopulation news, research and analysis from The Conversation.
Overpopulation is the world's top environmental issue, followed closely by climate change and the need to develop renewable energy resources to replace fossil fuels, according to a survey of the. Free overpopulation papers, essays, and research papers. Overpopulation’s Effect on Environment - In today’s society there are many economic problems, such as pollution, global warming, and overpopulation.
Overpopulation Overpopulation research papers look into the occurance of excess in a species that causes overburdening to its environment. Overpopulation occurs when there is an excess of any species, overburdening its environment. Method section: The research question that is trying to answered is if there is an actual overpopulation problem. The hypothesis is that overpopulation is increasing drastically and if it is not seriously will their be some sort of disaster/plague?