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❶Her genial nature apart from the quality of her work made her popular among her colleagues despite her professional differences with psychoanalysts such as Melanie Klein. Adler's basic theories were so distinctive from Freud's that any attempt to combine them would have been impossible, given that he denied the existence of the id, ego and superego.

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Sigmund Freud Essay

Moreover, humans were social creatures whose purpose in life was not merely to accumulate wealth, power and status, but to improve the condition of society and the world as best they could. Alderian psychology was always a relatively small school compared to the Freudians and behaviorists,…… [Read More]. Freudian Perspective of Human Psychology. More specifically, children whose transition through the Oedipal or Electra Complex and those whose parents neglected to fulfill their other crucial emotional needs during their developmental years retain long- lasting negative psychological attachments to those areas in which their needs where unfulfilled.

Alternatively, they may retain a fundamental psychological orientation that corresponds to the precise stage of development i. Most significantly, whereas most children experience the psychological "loss" of the parent through this process, the manner in which parents interact with their children and the specific experiences of the child during that stage determines many aspects of the psychological issues that develop within the individual in connection with subsequent romantic urges and relationships McWilliams, Similarly, Freud proposed that the other stages of infancy such as the oral phase and anal phase…… [Read More].

Id Ego and Super-Ego of. The ego also understands that submitting to the id can lead to self-destructive behavior. The ego is also subject to "defense mechanisms" that will help it mediate between the id and the super-ego. One defense mechanism present in Bundy's behavior is displacement.

Displacement occurs when one directs threatening impulses on a less threatening target. Reports indicate that Bundy directed his attacks on middle-class, white females, between the ages of 15 and 25, many of who were college students. His victims are speculated to have resembled his first girlfriend, "Stephanie Brooks.

Bundy had confessed that his first attempted kidnapping occurred in , an indication that the termination of his relationship with "Brooks" may have been the trigger on his serial killing spree. The super-ego is closely associated with the individual's conscience and…… [Read More]. Psychoanalytical Theory Psychoanalytic theory started off with the work of Sigmund Freud. Throughout his clinical work with people suffering from mental illness, Freud came to believe that childhood experiences and unaware desires contributed to a person's behavior.

Based on his observations, he developed a theory that described development in terms of a series of psychosexual stages. According to Freud, disagreements that take place during each of these stages can have a lasting influence on one's character and actions Cherry, Psychoanalytic theory was an extremely influential force throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Those enthused and influenced by Freud have gone on to expand upon Freud's ideas and develop theories of their own. Of these neo-Freudians, Erik Erikson's ideas have become possibly the best known.

Erikson's eight-stage theory of psychosocial development describes growth and change all through the lifetime, centering on social dealings and disagreements that take place…… [Read More]. Defense Mechanisms and Dream Interpretation.

In fact, it is the ego that is responsible for creating and maintaining defense mechanisms, to defend itself from perceived attacks or to maintain a perceived equilibrium. Typically, people remain unaware that they are using defense mechanisms to react to discomfort. Psychotherapy is in part designed to help a person become aware of their defense mechanisms and to learn how to cope better with stress and anxiety.

Defense mechanisms might have originally been designed by the ego as ways to protect itself, but they can have the reverse effect of causing harm because they can evolve into problems like phobias or behavioral disorders. Almost everyone uses defense mechanisms. One common one is denial. Denial is a defense mechanism that protects the ego from facing…… [Read More]. The Jungian model uses rationality and spirituality in place of Freudian sexuality as the main determiners of personality.

Jung also believed that personality continued to evolve until at least middle-age; far later then the pubescent cementing of personality that Freud described.

In today's world, Jungian types with the additional differentiation between perceiving and judging are used much more often than Freudian models. Another great personality theorist was Carl Rogers. Rogers took a vast departure from both Feud and Jung in his basic approach to psychology and especially when it came to personality. Rather than ever seeing personality as a finished product, Rogers believed that the innate purpose of a human individual was fulfillment of our genetic capabilities through the completion of positive works, a drive that he called the actualizing tendency.

Personality is born through the relationship of an individual's self-concept with their inborn potential -- the closer the two…… [Read More].

Post World War I Era. Post World War I era: Freud and Ortega y Gasset The outbreak of World War I was a traumatic and disillusioning event for many people in Europe, perhaps most of all for those who had committed themselves to a notion of progress and advancement in human affairs.

The sheer scale of the destruction and death unleashed by the war, which "exceeded that of all other wars known to history," at the end of a century which had been largely seen as one of peace, progress and prosperity, was a profound shock - one from which, it could be argued, the nations of Europe never entirely recovered.

When the Austrian psycho-analyst Sigmund Freud sat down to write an article on the war in early , it was this sense of disillusionment, of a loss of faith in progress, that was uppermost in his mind.

The resulting essay, "Thoughts for the Times…… [Read More]. Einstein, Freud and the Search for Hidden Universes," Richard Panek argues that both Einstein and Freud cut across the barriers of science in their time and, through scrupulous observation not only did they produce a revolution in their respective fields of research but, most importantly, they prompted a "revolution in thought" by using as instruments of research not so much mathematical formulas, but more, the tool of imagination which conjures a new, different world for the XX st century.

The notion of the "invisible century" expresses just that. It is not necessary an era of invisible technologies, but one in which questions are answered by triggering flows of speculations based on information or facts which cannot be physically proven yet there is no doubt about their validity.

The term "invisible century" points to a historical environment in which one can answer questions such as "what are dreams," "what…… [Read More]. Gestalt Theory According to Koffka. An introduction to Gestalt-theories" , an act psychology in the tradition of Brentano?

The basic principle behind Gestalt theory is that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Gestalt theory focuses on the structures of the mind As an alternative to Gestalt theory Franz Brentano stressed that it is the activities of the mind that are worthy of scientific study, not mental structures: It is the seeing, the act that is mental However, Gestalt psychologists like Koffka stressed how it was the mind itself, not the object or the activity that should be the target of study.

Clearly, however, Freud also recognized how Sophocles's story, at least in a literal sense if not a figurative or psychological one, paralleled his particular new theory of early childhood development, that at the four-year-old stage, a child "falls in love" with the opposite sex parent and wishes, then, to kill the same-sex parent in order to destroy a rival. Freud made the name "Oedipus" far better known than it would otherwise have been. Without Sophocles's play, of course, there would be no term like "Oedipus Complex," to describe today's best-known theoretical stage of early childhood development.

However, Freud's theory is also very far from the story of Oedipus and his unfortunate fate, as told by Sophocles. Therefore, to think of King Oedipus only in…… [Read More]. Therapies and Influences in the. Beysteher This is significant, because it shows the impact that the ideas of Freud would have not only the world of psychology, but upon society. Where, these different ideas would become increasingly popular, as way of analyzing the different personalities. This is because Freud himself was: With him, calling for people to accept his ideas as fact, those who disagreed with him were: This would shape how people would view his ideas in the future.

As new forms of psychology developed, these views would create competing fields of study. Over the course of time, this would lead to divisions, as to which thinkers had the most correct analysis…… [Read More].

War of the Worlds by. By relating to how individuals were accustomed to using violence in order to put across their thinking ever since the beginning of time, Freud wanted Einstein and the whole world to understand that people were predisposed to using violence in spite of the fact that they lobbied with regard to how violence is wrong. Not only did Freud believe that people were prone to violence because of their barbaric nature, as he also believed that "killing an enemy satisfied an instinctual inclination" Freud.

It is practically as if Freud considered that people were even capable to kill someone as long as they believed that they would put an end to a serious threat by doing so. Question 3 "The War of the Worlds" is meant to stand as an allegory for imperialism, taking into account that it describes aliens in a totalitarian way and emphasizes their ultimate defeat as their…… [Read More]. Psychology Theories of Personality Focus on Inner.

Psychology Theories of personality focus on inner traits of individuals, which may or may not be viewed as static. While all these theories share in common their goal to explain, analyze, and understand human behavior in terms of personality explanations, there are important differences in these main approaches.

The differences will affect theory but also practice of psychology. Behaviorism was one of the earliest expressions of psychological inquiry. Therefore, it makes sense to begin with an understanding of behavioral theories of personality. Behaviorism suggests that individual behavior is the key to understanding personality. Because of its emphasis on behavior rather than emotion or cognition, behavioral theories of personality are relatively weak and limited in scope.

However, it is still worth understanding the…… [Read More]. Bandura and Adler Alfred Adler's. While there is a lot of controversy surrounding Bandura's theories, the psychologist claims that people should be more interested in the social utility of his theories rather than wasting their time challenging their exactness Bandura.

The debates relating to Bandura's theories can be associated to the divergences between groups of behavioral theorists and groups of humanistic and cognitive theorists. I personally believe that people especially those in the present are influenced to a large degree by their environments.

This is principally because of factors such as the media, the internet, and globalization in general. However, one's individuality is always noticeable, considering that all people are thought to be unique in their character. Thus, even though most people's personalities are presently shaped…… [Read More].

Enlightenment Ideas Challenged the Philosophers. The pre-Aryan inhabitants of the Italian soil, whose complexion formed the clearest feature of distinction from the dominant blondes, namely, the Aryan conquering race Superiority and the idea that some laws apply to only some people were taken to the extreme in the mind of Adolf Hitler and his attempt to build a super race, and a nation where Aryans were encouraged to 'breed' and other racial groups were annihilated.

Nietzsche wished to create a world without rules, so everyone could exercise his or her maximum potential, but he believed some races had greater tendencies to embody the qualities of the superman and were more capable of living freely and creatively. Most of the philosophers believed that human nature can be improved?

Why was…… [Read More]. Psychoanalysis offered main traditions exploring human development. Freud introduced psychosexual stages development Erikson introduced psychosocial stages development. Based information gathered weeks reading researching Brandman library formulate a 2 3-page APA style paper addressing: Sigmund Freud's theory of psychosexual development and Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development Sigmund Freud's theory of psychosexual development promotes the concept that each person possesses a form of sexual energy from the moment when he or she is born and that the respective energy develops in five stages as the individual becomes older.

From Freud's point-of-view, all stages present in his theory of psychosexual development need to be completed in the order he devised in order for the individual to develop healthily.

If they are not completed in a predetermined order, the individual is likely to experience problems integrating the social order, taking into account that he or she failed to develop correctly. The Oral…… [Read More]. Cocaine the Long-Term and Short-Term. The good news for those keeping an eye on the health of students in secondary school is that there has been a "…significant decline in the day prevalence of powder cocaine use among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders from its peak use in the late s" nida.

Sexual Addiction Author Paul Earley writes in the Cocaine Recovery Book that cocaine stimulates the part of the brain that stirs a sexual feeling along while decreasing a person's inhibitions. So, given the heightened sexual arousal, and a decrease in inhibition, the cocaine addict can become addicted to sexual behaviors that can be "…compulsive and bizarre… [and hence the person may] progress from compulsive and ritualistic sex to shame and remorse" Earley, In fact Earley asserts that some male cocaine addicts try to get females addicted to the drug, engendering "…a dual addiction to sex and cocaine" Treatments for Cocaine Addiction…… [Read More].

Doubling in Frankenstein Mary Shelley's. It is through Shelley's doubling between Frankenstein and the Monster, and herself and Frankenstein and the Monster, that Freud's uncanny and psychological concepts of the id, ego, and superego can be analyzed. Shelley demonstrates how an individual's outward appearance is not necessarily representative of their character and at the same time is able to come to terms with the psychological traumas that plagued her -- from losing her own mother at childbirth to losing her own children shortly thereafter.

Furthermore, Shelley is able to demonstrate how an imbalance between an individual's id, ego, and superego can influence behavior and is also able to demonstrate how each of these is formed, either through instinctual behaviors, observations, and education.

Ultimately, Shelley's understanding of the uncanny, and psychological constructs, paved the way for psychologists like Freud to investigate the constructs of fear and unease. Works Cited Freud, Sigmund. The Ego and the Id. Emile Durkheim's Approach to the. Wherever modern capitalism has begun its work of increasing the productivity of human labor by increasing its intensity, it has encountered the immensely stubborn resistance of this leading trait of pre-capitalistic labor" Weber, Even if Marx and Weber were in a state of disagreement over the importance of ideals or material realities in propelling the injustices of capitalism, the idea that ideas could change the world, coupled with Freud's psychological analysis of the inevitability of estrangement from one's original object of affection and Marx's economic analysis has proved attractive to critical theory and its own synthesized critique of capitalism.

What unites all three theorists is their generally pessimistic reading of the human being produced by modern life. To exist in society, a person must repress his or her innate sexual impulses and redirect them onto acceptable objects of affection like money. A person must sublimate his or her desire…… [Read More]. Obama was born in Hawaii to a Caucasian mother and a Kenyan father.

Before Obama's birth, both were students at the University of Hawaii. This suggests that his life has been a quest in search of his father, a man who left him when he was two years old. However, it is equally possible to see Obama's life as a man defined by women: The psychodynamic view of…… [Read More]. English Literature Science and Religion. This theory essentially states that myths are designed in order to tell a story, or to explain how, through supernatural means, a particular event took place Eliade, Using this definition from Eliade himself, it is much easier to discuss the importance of religious ritual and its tie to myths.

Because myths perform the task of explaining what may have only been explainable through sheer faith without myths in place, religions are able to build a somewhat solid foundation for the members of that religion. However, no myth could be expected to merely stand on its own within a religion without some symbolic importance of the myth being demonstrated- this is where the element of religious ritual comes into play. The ritual makes it possible for a logical connection between myth and reality to occur in the mind of a faithful individual.

As a quick example, for those of the…… [Read More]. Oral stage birth to one year the mouth, tongue and gums are the focus of pleasurable sensations in the baby's body. During the oral stage one of the child's pleasures is sucking. Too much or too little gratification can result in an oral fixation or oral personality. This type of personality may have a stronger tendency to smoke, drink alcohol, over eat, or bite his or her nails.

Also, these individuals may become excessively dependent on others, deceitful, and constant followers. Anal stage one to three years The anus is the focus of pleasurable sensations in the baby's body.

The most important activity is toilet training to eliminate feces. Looking at children, Freud identified many forms of infantile sexual emotions, including thumb sucking , autoeroticism, and sibling rivalry. In his third essay, "The Transformations of Puberty" Freud formalised the distinction between the 'fore-pleasures' of infantile sexuality and the 'end-pleasure' of sexual intercourse. He also demonstrated how the adolescent years consolidate sexual identity under the dominance of the genitals.

Freud sought to link to his theory of the unconscious put forward in The Interpretation of Dreams and his work on hysteria by positing sexuality as the driving force of both neuroses through repression and perversion. In its final version, the "Three Essays" also included the concepts of penis envy , castration anxiety , and the Oedipus complex. The Three Essays underwent a series of rewritings and additions over a twenty-year succession of editions [11] — changes which expanded its size by one half, from 80 to pages.

As Freud himself conceded in , the result was that "it may often have happened that what was old and what was more recent did not admit of being merged into an entirely uncontradictory whole", [15] so that, whereas at first "the accent was on a portrayal of the fundamental difference between the sexual life of children and of adults", subsequently "we were able to recognize the far-reaching approximation of the final outcome of sexuality in children in about the fifth year to the definitive form taken by it in adults".

Jacques Lacan considered such a process of change as evidence of the way that "Freud's thought is the most perennially open to revision There are three English translations, one by A. Brill in , another by James Strachey in published by Imago Publishing.

Kistner's translation is at the time of its publishing the only English translation available of the earlier edition of the Essays. The edition theorizes an autoerotic theory of sexual development, without recourse to the Oedipal complex.


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Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, in Freiberg, Moravia. His father was a wool merchant and his mother was a lively woman, who was twenty years younger than his father and also his second wife. Sigmund was his mother first child of seven and he had two older half brothers.

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- Sigmund Freud and His Psychology Sigmund Freud is one of the most famous psychologists to ever hit the study of psychology. His name alone symbolizes the importance of his theories, and the name that comes to most people's heads when saying the word psychology is Sigmund Freud.

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Sigmund Freud Essay - Sigmund Freud Works Cited Missing Psychology and its evolvement in the U.S. and its culture exploded with the theories and writings of Sigmund Freud. America welcomed psychoanalysis as its new treatment for hysteria and mental illnesses. Essay title: Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud's major theory is the psychoanalytic theory. The psychoanalytic theory is a grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious, drives and motives, many of which originate in childhood, underlie human behavior/5(1).

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Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality () by Freud - Free PDF eBook \. Sigmund Freud, an Austrian psychiatrist and known as the father of psychoanalysis, developed an entirely new and fascinating approach to understanding the human personality. He is referred to as 'one of the most influential and controversial minds of the 20th century'.