Citation of Classical Works. The Proper Use of Et Al. How to Cite Part of a Work. For a chapter in an e-book, include the chapter title and page numbers if available. Books and Book Chapters: What Belongs in the Reference List? Although the Publication Manual 6th ed.
Title of video [Video file]. A digital object identifier DOI is a unique string of letters, numbers, and symbols assigned to a published work to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.
The DOI is typically located on the first page of an electronic document near the copyright notice and on the database landing page for the document.
When DOIs are available, include them in the reference information. Journal Title, X , xxx—xxx. How to Find a DOI. Special Focus Next Week. A bibliography , however, may include resources that were consulted but not cited in the text as well as an annotated description of each one. Bibliographies may be organized chronologically, or by subject, rather than alphabetically. If you have been given an assignment that asks for a bibliography, consult your instructor for more specifics about the required format.
Order in the Reference List! Or the Case of the Maddening Initials. Punctuating the Reference List Entry. Asking the Right Question: How can the Reader Find the Source? Quick Answers—References Websites For a passing reference to a website in text, the URL is sufficient; no reference list entry is needed. Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship Bugjuice OR Bugjuice The role of whisker length in mouse J Physiol 61 3: The role of estrogen in J Physiol 2 6: Author s Unknown or Not Named.
If the authorship of a paper or other document is not provided, cite the author using the word "Anonymous" in the place of the authors name s. A Survival Guide for College Students Anonymous OR Anonymous Behavior patterns of mice. Scientific format and style: The CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers.
Adenohypophyseal hormones and related Kuret and Murad Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussion , whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.
Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red: Typically, only the last name of the author s and the year of publication are given,e.
Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles.
The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble. For two author papers , give both authors' last names e. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al.
When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author , cite it as Anon. If you want reference a paper found in another article , do so as follows: Driblick , in Oobleck A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e.
Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e. Top of Page Personal Communications: However, the source is usually thanked in your Acknowledgments for their contribution. Footnoting, although commonly done in books and other literary writing, is only rarely done in journal style papers. Cite references in the flow of the text as shown above. How the author stated this information, i.
Take the information and put it into your own words ; avoid paraphrasing since this can potentially lead to plagiarism. Top of Page Formats for Complete Citations used in the Literature Cited In the Literature Cited you must provide complete citations for each of the published sources cited in your paper. All citation entries are listed in alphabetical order based the first author's last name ; If the same author s are cited for more than one paper having the same order of authors' names , the papers should be listed in chronological sequence by year of publication.
Authors' names MUST be listed in the citation in the same order as in the article. If the same author s are cited for two or more papers published within the same year, place a small case letter after the year to denote the sequence in which you referred to them.
If no author is listed, use the word Anonymous in place of the author name s.
MLA 8 Website Citation: Social Media. In an increasingly digital world, social media platforms have become one of the most popular sources students turn to when writing a research paper. When citing social media in your work, follow the same format as an MLA citation for a website.
Note:When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Electronic Sources If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by .
Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. To cite a website in a paper using APA format, gather the author's name, the title of the article, the date of publication and the URL for that website. Add an in-text parenthetical note, and include the source information in the list of references.
Research Paper Help; How to cite WEBSITES APA Web Site Citation Web sites do not include subscription databases. Examples are not double-spaced, but your References list should be double-spaced; Examples do not show indented lines after the first line, but yours should be indented. Put the information about the source in parentheses in the text of your paper as opposed to a footnote where the source information is at the bottom of the page or an endnote where it goes at the end of your paper. videos, brochures, journals, reports, etc. italicize the title. When citing web pages, journal article titles, or chapter.