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❶The law also provided that the dower and the gift propter nuptias should be equal and that the spouses should have the same rights of survivorship. During this stage, children are believed to be in the processes of discovering their own identity.

Faithful Word Baptist Church / Tempe, Arizona

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It's Imperialism, Stupid - Half-truths, misinformation and hidden agendas have characterised official pronouncements about US war motives in Iraq from the very beginning. The recent revelations about the rush to war in Iraq stand out all the more starkly amid the chaos that ravages the country and threatens the region and indeed the world. A page CFR document spells out a five-year plan for the "establishment by of a North American economic and security community" with a common "outer security perimeter.

It was a "war collectivism," a totally planned economy run largely by big-business interests through the instrumentality of the central government, which served as the model, the precedent, and the inspiration for state corporate capitalism for the remainder of the twentieth century.

Five hundred US troops arrived in the country on Jul. Eyewitness reports prove that an airbase exists in Mariscal Estigarribia, Paraguay, which is kilometres from its border with Bolivia and may be utilized by the US military.

France Orders Positive Spin on Colonialism - France, grappling for decades with its colonial past, has passed a law to put an upbeat spin on a painful era, making it mandatory to enshrine in textbooks the country's ''positive role'' in its far-flung colonies. The dark spot in this momentous victory for freedom is that the US news media refuses to cover this issue.

So spread the word and let others know that the criminal attempt to usurp American sovereignty is seriously on the rocks Plan Engineered by Globalists - The intention is plain and simple: When a terrorist act might be too obvious, riots are the next best thing. Both accomplish the same goal of getting people stirred up, frightened and most of all to make otherwise clear-minded people willing to submit their liberties to the state in trade for "protection. The Deliberate Destruction Of America [ This is what I have been saying in my articles for a long time, Wes ] - There is a deliberate agenda at hand to reflect an image of America to the world as a corrupt, evil, deceiving, hypocritical and brutal power.

The Bush administration is being played like a fiddle and as each horror story scandal emerges, America sinks further into the waiting jaws of its 'savior' - the dark stalker of global government. Global Cities for Global Corporations - There seems to be dozens of think-tanks, universities and other organizations who are focusing on the Global City these days, including Brookings Institution, Rand Corporation, Brown University, University of Toronto, and many others.

Clinton Reveals Globalist Methodology - Bill Clinton is a long-time member of the Trilateral Commission, a super-elite group of academic, political and business leaders from Europe, Asia and north America. Trilateral Commission members have met annually behind closed doors since , to discuss policies that members would carry back to their respective countries for implementation. Slouching Toward Global Enslavement - Last year was another instrumental year in the advance of world government.

While most commentators will concentrate on popularized events, many will not discuss the latest steps taken to cement the final touches to a world governmental structure that has been in the making for the last years or so. The Global Game of Survivor: America's Next Four Years - As I wrote in my Hallowe'en editorial, the story of the rise of Adolf Hitler is the single most important story of the 20th century.

With this event, in less than a single lifetime, one of the most civilized countries in Europe was reduced to moral, physical, and cultural ruin. The rest of the world was nearly gobbled into this black hole of evil. The EU constitution is dead in the water and the UN can be defined as somewhere in between a talking shop and a laughing stock.

Gnasso, Feb 09, - Posted here: UN Pushes for Global Taxes - Like most people, you probably feel taxed to death by all these layers of taxes. The Strange Case of Dr. Francesco Pazienza, the lid should be finally blown sky-high off the White House, blowing a hole so deep and wide that every President since Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan will be nabbed for treasonous high crimes against humanity and the civilized world.

Francesco Pazienza Donato - Ledeen and Pazienza are "tied together at the hip. Francesco Pazienza's final plea for justice sent to the U. Department of State has been ignored for one year as the criminals in Washington are allowed to roam free like a pack of rats in their 'Cheesy' world of deception and terrorism.

These actions are not missteps, as some conservatives would like to believe, but deliberate and purposeful efforts for a regional government. Today's Immigration Battle - Corporatists vs. Both the corporatists and the racists are fond of the mantra, "There are some jobs Americans won't do. No Flag, No Nation [. According to school officials, some students are using the garments and flags to taunt classmates. Some critics of the move are calling it a violation of free speech protections guaranteed by the Constitution.

Saturday, Apr 15, It's called the HSIN, and now includes 50 states, five territories, 53 major urban areas, local officials and officials from Britain, Canada and Australia. Friday, May 05, Saturday, June 24, Brussels in Push for New Powers - The plan announced at a news conference in Brussels would give the Court of Justice and the European Parliament a say on policing and would mean getting rid of countries' automatic right to veto plans they don't like.

Roads, Bridges - Roads and bridges built by U. An Australian company bought a year lease on Virginia's Pocahontas Parkway, and Texas officials decided to let a Spanish-American partnership build and run a toll road from Austin to Seguin for 50 years. If you were to ask at random the question, "Have you heard of Agenda 21? All we need is the right major crisis and the nations will accept the New World Order. Should we avoid tall outdated, well-insured buildings?

If we don't want to become a neglected outstation of the European Superstate, stripped of our nationhood, powerless to decide who lives here, controlled by laws we don't make and can't change, ruled by a government we cannot throw out, we have rather a short time in which to do something about it. I am sure they soon have it all figured out so we can go back to a normal life, having job security, secure borders with reasonable immigration laws, the dollar will go back to being the leading currency and the Government will see to our welfare.

Oh no, what are they saying here? Obama talking about a New World Order? Its founding co-chairman is Michael Gorbachev December 22, Europeans Are Rising Force in New World Order - The balance of world golfing power is rapidly shifting from America to Europe, according to an analysis of the world rankings which are now finalised for the year.

December 22, Africa and Asia Push for 'New World Order' - African and Asian leaders, representing two-thirds of the global population, met in Jakarta, Indonesia, on Friday to discuss ways of achieving "a new world order". April 29, New America and the Global Order: He argues that it seeks to conserve the global status quo through a comforting subordination to American power. His wide-ranging survey suggest that the new century is not going to embrace any such outcome.

Putin - The Indo-Russian strategic partnership contributes to the building of a democratic and secure world order, Russian President Vladimir Putin has said in his new year message to the Indian leadership. Arjomand said, "A new world order is taking shape, whose core is abiding by the human rights.

A Muslim Responsibility, Dr. Badmus, the Head of the Religious Education Unit, University of Lagos, described the sixth century as a period when the world hovered between life and death. January 12, Managing the Conflict between People and Nature - The establishment of new world order [my emphasis] able to protect the "human safety" requires establishing international organizations, different from those available within the framework of the UN.

They should be able to interfere efficiently and skillfully when people, anywhere in the world, are subject to disasters, regardless of their origins. January 14, Walker's World: The New World Order - The tectonic plates of geopolitics have just shifted. On an issue of major strategic concern to the United States, the European Union has decided to flout American concerns and side with China, and Britain has put its vaunted "special relationship" with the United States to one side, and has gone along with its fellow Europeans.

A new world order is coming. January 18, The Pretensions of Tyrants - Three hundred million people go to bed hungry daily under the auspices of the New World Order over which the lone superpower presides.

Diseases that could be eradicated overnight rampage across the poor countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. January 26, The New U. A new world order [ my emphasis ] is indeed emerging - but its architecture is being drafted in Asia and Europe, at meetings to which Americans have not been invited. February 7, Annan Raises Terror Threats in Plea for Overhaul of World Security System - More broadly, he urged the European Union and the United States to work more closely as "the backbone of a new world order [ my emphasis] in the 21st century.

The Masonic Founding of The United States of America - The next time you hear from some fundamentalist Christian talking about how the United States of America was founded by a group of church-going Christians, as the fundamentalists claim they are, think about this: Tuesday, March 13, The United States, Guilty of State Terrorism - This article is contrary to the popular superstition that the United States was founded upon the basis of liberty and freedom.

The United States was founded upon, by, and continuing state terrorism. Masonic Foundations of the United States - It is certain that there were Christians among the founding fathers of the United States, however, historical evidence militates against the view that those who formulated the fundamental documents of American government were, in the main, Christians. To the contrary, not a few who wrote and signed the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation and the Constitution were Deists, Theists and Freemasons.

American Masonic History - There is much speculation on the religious nature of the United States of America as it was founded. Many Christians assert that the United States was founded as a Christian nation and, therefore, it is not only our right but our duty to reclaim it for God. But is America a Christian nation in the true sense of the word? It includes artifacts and documents that reveal Washington's commitment to the fraternity and its principles and values [ my emphasis ].

Held by Masonic Lodges and Grand Lodges around the country, many of the objects, letters and minute books have rarely been available for public showing.

Bessel - Posted here: George Washington Papers - memory. C Part 1 - Occultists the world over believe that, once a symbol is created, it acquires power of its own, and more power is generated when such symbol s are created without the profane [uninitiated] knowing about it. And, the greatest power of all is created in the symbol s if the uninitiated NEVER discover that the symbol exists.

C Part 2 - Alice Bailey, Director of the House of Theosophy in the early part of this century, writes about the role of Freemasonry in the coming New Age and in the realization of the appearance of the Great One [Antichrist], and the reason for all this tremendous secrecy.

Gallery of Masonic Symbolism - The significance of the mystical number 13, which frequently appears upon the Great Seal of the United States, is not limited to the number of the original colonies. The sacred emblem of the ancient initiates, here composed of 13 stars, also appears above the head of the "eagle. It was designed by the Freemasons and contains a mass of symbolism that the profane non masons are not to understand.

This article will once and for all prove that the Seal is a Masonic design. The Great Seal of the United States And given that some sixteen drafts, over a time period of years through which the seal was constructed, it makes coincidence impossible as an explanation for those 13's.

This sounds shocking but the evidence abounds. Masonic symbols are in plain view. A Country Founded on Paganism - The Declaration also mentions god where the religious-right of modern times have tried to use as evidence for their Christian god. But does the god of the Declaration speak about a Biblical god? No, not at all.

Clearly the god mentioned describes a Pagan concept. Lets look at the Declaration's words directly: How come people like President George W. Bush can get away with cutting the Constitution to pieces, like he seems to be doing? Are we all wrong in our accusations against Bush in these matters? I would say, yes! Bush is not doing anything wrong! Sensenbrenner called the legislation "the toughest thing that I've done in 37 years in elective public office. But under Reagan, FEMA immediately went off the deep end, eyeing peaceful demonstrators as potential bomb-throwing terrorists.

A Presidential Executive Order, whether Constitutional or not, becomes law simply by its publication in the Federal Registry. Executive Order Number created the Federal Emergency Management Agency that is to interface with the Department of Defense for civil defense planning and funding. An "emergency czar" was appointed. FEMA has only spent about 6 percent of its budget on national emergencies, the bulk of their funding has been used for the construction of secret underground facilities to assure continuity of government in case of a major emergency, foreign or domestic.

Martin for FreeAmerica, Sep 21, - Posted here: Concentration Camps in U. They are all staffed and even surrounded by full-time guards, but they are all empty. Saturday, Jan 12, Simply put, it is the "secret government". This agency has powers and authority that go well beyond any other agency in the nation. What can FEMA do? It can suspend laws. It can move entire populations.

It can arrest and detain citizens without a warrant and can hold them without a trial. It can seize property, food supplies, and transportation systems.

And it can even suspend the Constitution of the United States. Religion and Secret Societies - - FreedomFiles. Locations and Executive Orders - These camps are to be operated by FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency should Martial Law need to be implemented in the United States and all it would take is a presidential signature on a proclamation and the attorney general's signature on a warrant to which a list of names is attached. Ask yourself if you really want to be on Ashcroft's list.

These are charges I not have made in haste or frivolously. I have seen quite a few of these facilities and have been sent photos and locations of many others. Jan 18, David Icke. Shocking Prisoner Abuses at Guantanamo Bay Are Revealed - Prisoners at Guantanamo Bay were subjected to Abu Ghraib-style torture and sexual humiliation in which they were stripped naked, forced to sodomise one another and taunted by naked female American soldiers, according to a new report.

August 4, Rumsfeld Openly Admits Guantanamo Torture - When Donald Rumsfeld was asked about the force feeding of detainees at Guantanamo Bay recently, a brutal practice that involves inserting tubes as wide as fingers directly through stomachs and nostrils without any anesthetic as prisoners convulse and vomit blood, Rummy replied, "I'm not a doctor. Rights Group Leader Says U. He won the Nobel Prize for the book of that name, lived here in exile and was mentioned in the media almost every day—until he made the fateful speech at Harvard Limbaugh has been hawking a new line of caps, T-shirts and mugs that depict the Guantanamo Bay detention camp in Cuba as a holiday home.

In fact, I probably would have ordered their execution if I had the power. Leaked Emails claim Guantanamo Trials Rigged - Leaked emails from two former prosecutors claim the military commissions set up to try detainees at Guantanamo Bay are rigged, fraudulent, and thin on evidence against the accused.

I haven't seen anywhere in history where detention centers and so forth were used as freedom enhancing tools. View this anyway you wish, but do so at your own peril. Consider yourself warned, what you choose to do with this information is only up to you. Halliburton Detention Camps For Political Subversives - Under the enemy combatant designation anyone at the behest of the US government, even if they are a US citizen, can be kidnapped and placed in an internment facility forever without trial.

Jose Padilla, an American citizen, has spent over four years in a Navy brig and is only just now getting a trial. Evidence points to the possibility. Activists falsely imprisoned in the State Mental Hospitals - American Activists are being falsely imprisoned in the State Mental Hospitals, without a Trial for life, if the Government feels like it.

They are arresting Americans on asinine charges, and then say that they are incompetent, and commit them to a State run Mental Hospital. They force harmful and dangerous Drugs on them to fry their Brains and they are totally sane, with no mental problems, until they get sent to one of these Concentration Camps, for protesters and Activists or just intelligent Citizens of this Country.

Gulags For American Citizens In Final Planning Stages - Bush administration and US army preparations to target American citizens and intern them in forced labor camps has vastly accelerated in the past month and commentators from all over the political spectrum are sounding the alarm bells that the round-ups may begin soon.

Meet the World's Most Dangerous Terrorists - The release of the names and backgrounds of the Guantanamo inmates has revealed what we knew all along, the world's "most dangerous terrorists" are nothing of the sort, they are poor farmers and the like who have simply been grabbed and stuck in cages and publicly tortured for the past four years.

Labor Camps [ Declassified Document in. Download Acrobat Reader for free here if you don't have it already. Purpose This regulation provides Army policy and guidance for establishing civilian inmate labor programs and civilian prison camps on Army installations. Saturday, Sep 23, "Top Secret" U. Citizens Over Political Issues! Thursday, July 26, Back to the s - "Papiere, Bitte! For example, today oil and commodity e. And with increased demand from China, India, etc.

Friday March 28, Ex-Congressman: Appearing today on the Alex Jones Show, Hamburg said he was working on an article about missing nuclear bombs in relation to the Minot nuclear warheads mishap and agreed that it was possible the story could be used as a cover for the staged detonation of a nuke to be blamed on Al-Qaeda. Paul, in support of Ron Paul for president.

Did you hear that on the mainstream news? Did you hear about the raids on people prior to the protests protests where 10, peacefully marched and the handcuffing and brutality toward peaceful protest organizers, on the grounds of "conspiracy to incite riots"? One in six councils contacted by the Telegraph said they had signed up teams of "environment volunteers" who are being encouraged to photograph or video neighbours guilty of dog fouling, littering or "bin crimes".

Saturday, September 06, America, Inc.: Land of Corporate Reign - Benito Mussolini said, "Fascism should more appropriately be called Corporatism because it is a merger of state and corporate power. And, I submit to you that such a marriage between the state and corporate power has taken place here in the United States.

In a wide-ranging interview with The Sunday Times, he said: Where it can help, we should be part of it. His support goes beyond the public position of Gordon Brown, the prime minister, and will antagonise those who believe that further European cooperation will undermine Nato by excluding the United States.

Illegally Harassed by the D rug E nforcement A dministration - From to , after more than incidents of harassment we were forced to purchase Soviet Starlight night vision equipment to identify a group of trespassers who were routinely hanging out around our bedroom windows at night. The mixed, multi-agency group would have loose, normal voice level conversations and commentaries about what my wife and I were doing in bed.

The Faked Apollo Landings - This article has been written to prove, once and for all, that we are not being told the truth about the NASA film footage of the Apollo missions. It deals with the set-up with artificially created earthquakes at certain precise locations on the planet where, supposedly, new discoveries will finally explain to all people the error of all fundamental religious doctrines.

In a world in which a few enjoy unimaginable wealth, two hundred million children die each year from hunger-related disease. The next step is to fascinate fools and muzzle the intelligent, by emotional excitement on the one hand and terrorism on the other. Freedom, Harcourt Brace, Monday, March 10, George Orwell Quotes - "The essence of oligarchical rule is not father-to-son inheritance, but the persistence of a certain world-view and a certain way of life A ruling group is a ruling group so long as it can nominate its successors Who wields power is not important, provided that the hierarchical structure remains always the same.

The first line of offense? Assassination of political figures Murder of civilians in cold blood Monday, May 19, Bad Patents, Evil Corporations and the Rise of Intellectual Imperialism - If we continue to allow corporations to claim ownership over our money, our medicines, our seeds, plants and genes, then make no mistake about the outcome: We will all end up as worker slaves in an elitist plutocracy run by corporations.

Some say we're close to that already. Just look at how effectively corporate interests now control the U. There's hardly a law passed today that doesn't have the backing of a profit-minded corporation. You could keep what you earned and you could spend, save, invest and donate as you saw fit. You would have far more money with which to solve your own problems.

January 1, NWO Criminalizes, Locks Down Children - First they took the power to discipline away from the teachers, then they put Coke and Twinkie machines every 15 feet in the schools. The children started bouncing off the walls. The ritalin and prozac was brought forward as the solution to the problem created by the social architects at the Department of Education who knew exactly what they were doing.

April 26, UK Scientists To Create Cloned Human Embryos - Scientists in Britain are expecting approval this week for a plan to create cloned human embryos to be used to develop stem cells for diabetes patients. June 13, Schumer Wants Airport Screening Technology In Malls - They [the Illuminati] beta test the invasive big brother technology first in airports to acclimatize people to it.

They then externalize it and apply it to everything. June 23, Most Serious Warning Ever - In politics, one of the few things you can be certain about is, those who take away your liberty are not doing it to benefit you. July 15, Global Ethics and World Government - Concerning the movement toward a one-world government today, if the power elite are to accomplish their objectives, traditional values would, of course, have to be undermined.

In that regard, education has played a critical role for many years D, June 15, - Posted here: God, protect us from this evil man! Russ Feingold and Herbert Kohl. One time, the sound weapons was turned on to a low hum.

So the weapons they are using on Iraqis are going to be used on American citizens. This is the nature of the Police State we're living in. The Orwellian US - Orwell portrayed the state as being all-powerful, controlling every aspect of citizens' lives. When the novel was first published in , few people could conceive of such a society. Spies on Chat Rooms - Amid the torrent of jabber in internet chat rooms -- flirting by QTpie and BoogieBoy, arguments about politics and horror flicks -- are terrorists plotting their next move?

The government certainly isn't discounting the possibility. It's taking the idea seriously enough to fund a yearlong study on chat room surveillance under an anti-terrorism program. In Anthem , there is only the collective. Of course, we soon discover that there are Scholars, and leaders - a proletariat - that governs this great commune. They are the law. Our hero discovers a tunnel with scientific apparatus from before the Great Rebirth.

This is his great curse, pursuing science alone. Why couldn't they at least let her see that? An Intrusive New Search - In late September, the Transportation Security Administration TSA began allowing security checkpoint screeners to manually pat down women's breasts and the genital and derriere regions of both sexes during searches. This is to include control communications systems, aero-medical evacuation, helicopter and Weather Support Systems.

If these were reasonable words years ago, then has reason changed? Through its own history, the United Sates of America condemns its current practice, through its own documents the United States finds itself guilty of those crimes which led to its creation. Where is the bottom line?

Unless we universally denounce, deny and defy this despotism, dictated from Westminster by the City of London, we are all potential targets of a powerful and wicked regime rising in our midst. History tells us so… - - by Hazel W. MacKinlay - Posted here: When the Borders Close, It's Over - About a year ago, this author was ranting to my Father about how the surveillance cameras were watching us, but the borders remained open.

My Dad looked at me very carefully and said, "Son, don't ask for that. If they can't get in, we can't get out. Mexico ain't that bad. Snapshots Trigger Police Response [This is how paranoid our society has become The building has been photographed only a jillion times.

Even though many Americans are against the idea of a national identity card, it is coming. In fact, in many ways, it is already here.

It would also contain a unique number and information to help prove who the carrier is, such as fingerprints or iris scans. Libel Case Could Chill Speech Online - If the court finds in favor of the plaintiffs, the implications for free speech online are far-reaching. Bloggers could be held liable when they quote other people's writing, and website owners could be held liable for what people say in message boards on their sites.

The end result is that many people would simply cease to publish or host websites. Preparing for Lifetime Jailing of Terror Suspects - Administration officials are preparing long-range plans for indefinitely imprisoning suspected terrorists whom they do not want to set free or turn over to courts in the United States or other countries, according to intelligence, defense and diplomatic officials.

Behind Traffic Cameras Lurk Less Noble Motives - It is bad enough that the return on the city's sizable tax dollar is woefully lacking. It segues to insulting as the city becomes even more creative with its dollar-taking pursuits, planting speed cameras with the conviction of a totalitarian state. Freedom Curbs Accepted [ The Illuminati is right on target! We react as predicted. They must be pleased; we don't even make it hard for them. Just 18 percent say freedoms are too severely restrained and 6 percent don't know or refused to answer.

This form of humiliation equates to forcing an African to dress as the KKK or making a Jew wear the swastika. You would feel tainted! But torture is theatre in the New World Order. McKinlay - Posted here: Subverting the Press with Propaganda on the Rise - But as appalled as I am by Bush's willful misreading of history, I'm even more upset by his hypocrisy. He seems determined to destroy the very foundations of American democracy that he insists are our bulwark against our enemies and the cause of our enemies' hatred of us.

He launched a preemptive war against Iraq by lying to the American public. The Laws of Man - Where is the justice? Student Arrested For Writing Zombie Fiction Story - "My story is based on fiction," said Poole, who faces a second-degree felony terrorist threatening charge.

I made it up. I've been working on one of my short stories, and the short story they found was about zombies. Yes, it did say a high school.

It was about a high school over ran by zombies. Hatfield show that reporters who expose the criminal activities of our political elite are risking their lives. The Magna Carta This reaffirmation of a supreme law and its expression in a general charter is the great work of Magna Carta; and this alone justifies the respect in which men have held it. Malaysia May Fingerprint Babies - Police officers hope to store the information on a computer database to help catch criminals in the future. Pentagon Seeks Greater Immunity from Freedom of Information Act - The Department of Defense is pushing for a new rule that would make it easier for the Pentagon to withhold information on United States military operations from the public.

In the book, the main character is observed by a television, as well as other forms of technology that are used to constantly watch him. That vision may be coming in the next decade, but not quite in the same fashion that Orwell imagined.

Ban Yobs in Hoods From Our Streets - According to the media, anyone who sports a baseball cap and sweatshirt with a hood is guilty of anti-social behaviour or causing fear and insecurity in society. Big Brother Caused our Hooded Youth - The British are the most videotaped people in the history of mankind, caught on camera by official surveillance devices as they go about every humdrum public manoeuvre.

If you're a grown-up, this might not seem a big deal: Wes Penre ] - Neighbors spying on neighbors? Mothers forced to turn in their sons or daughters? A senior congressman, James Sensenbrenner R-Wis. Org - Posted here: FBI Trawls Libraries for Terrorist Readers - A list of people who had borrowed a book about Osama bin Laden was among the information to have been demanded since the introduction of the patriot act, the legislation that has enhanced the government's powers to investigate alleged terrorist activity after the attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon.

The Government has also previously been able to seize them whenever they find it appropriate. Wes Penre ] - A divided Supreme Court ruled Thursday that local governments may seize people's homes and businesses against their will for private development in a decision anxiously awaited in communities where economic growth often is at war with individual property rights.

Chief Constable Michael Todd took a 50, volt hit. I wouldn't want to do that again. They have reportedly been phased in for all ticket holders during the past six months, according to a report. US Police Pursue Girl Over Stone - An year-old girl who threw a stone at a group of boys pelting her with water balloons is being prosecuted on serious assault charges in California.

FBI Builds Huge File on Anti-War, Rights Group - Washington - The Federal Bureau of Investigation has collected at least 3, pages of internal documents in the last several years on a handful of civil rights and antiwar protest groups in what the groups charge is an attempt to stifle political opposition to the Bush administration. Big Brother was Watching - A probe into a domestic surveillance unit within the California National Guard ballooned Tuesday into a full-blown investigation into widespread allegations of spying on U.

Political Storm After Riot Police Break Up CzechTek Festival - A techno party in a field near the Czech-German border has become a minor political scandal after police in riot gear moved in at the weekend to break it up.

Police said they dispersed the CzechTek festival after complaints from neighbouring landowners, but the amount of force used has been heavily criticized. Strips More Freedom from Citizens than Terrorists Ever Could - After the collapse of the twin towers, our Congress, in a patriotic fervor more exactly described as a mad panic , passed sweeping legislation that did more to strip away freedom from the American people than 1, flying bombs.

The very name is cynical. Truck Drivers, Janitors, Exterminators etc. Training to Be Citizen Spies - All across America, people who have jobs working with the public are being trained to spy on the businesses and people they serve. Rumsfeld's Ray Gun - A non-lethal -- but potentially harmful -- crowd control weapon that heats human skin is bound for Iraq, and possibly to a police department near you.

Pete Bitar oversees demonstrations of directed-energy weapons. His company makes blinding lasers used in Iraq.

When did "politically correct" become synonymous with censorship? When did the label "hate crime" become our new censoring device? When did "critic" become synonymous with "terrorist?

Maybe that's where the answer lies. Thomas Friedman, New York Times. The Rise of the Democratic Police State - Friedman's latest bark is about free speech, which his country's constitution is said to safeguard. He wants the State Department to draw up a blacklist of those who make "wrong" political statements. He is referring not only to those who advocate violence, but those who believe American actions are the root cause of the current terrorism. The latter group, which he describes as "just one notch less despicable than the terrorists", includes most Americans and Britons, according to the latest polls.

Police Brutality at Utah Rave - At about I jokingly said "Oh look, here comes big brother" to the person I was with.

I wasn't far off. William Rodriguez and Wayne Madsen. Both fit the description of the person supposedly targeted by the government.

The ACLU release follows. This, despite the fact that the Home Office response to the LSE [costings] report has be shown to contain fabricated figures. People defending their mansions against burglars and thieves were disarmed by police and handcuffed! Militarization of the US Homeland: On the other hand, it is predictable that they would seize every opportunity, and take advantage of every moment of chaos, vulnerability and inattention, to sink its poisonous fangs deeper into the carcass of American democracy.

A woman was given a ticket for sitting on a park bench because she doesn't have children. The Rivington Playground on Manhattan's East Side has a small sign at the entrance that says adults are prohibited unless they are accompanied by a child. Forty-seven-year-old Sandra Catena says she didn't see the sign when she sat down to wait for an arts festival to start.

Two New York City police officers asked her if she was with a child. When she said no, they gave her a ticket that could bring a one thousand dollar fine and 90 days in jail.

Bring Your Passport -An antiterror law makes Internet cafe managers check their clients' IDs and track the websites they visit. Looking out over the cobblestone streets of Rome's Borgo Pio neighborhood, Maurizio Savoni says he's closing his Internet cafe because he doesn't want to be a "cop" anymore. The Police State Is Closer Than You Think - President Bush claims the power to set aside habeas corpus and to dispense with warrants for arrest and with procedures that guarantee court appearance and trial without undue delay.

Livergood - Posted here: Lapham, Oct 11, - Posted here: My Way of the Cross - I am a year-old man from Cameroon coastal Central Africa who fled my native country fearing for my life after helping to see the truth of the disappearance of 9 young Cameroonians the Bepanda Nine , killed by paramilitary governmental forces. I am married and father of 2 boys, have worked as assistant bailiff in a bailiff office.

I was granted asylum in the U. One could scarcely wish for a more graphic summing-up of his character and career. The essays which now lie before the reader suggest many a comment for which the necessary brevity of this introduction may not provide space.

Within the last months I have heard and read a number of expressions whose general tenor was: If Sumner had only lived a little longer to receive something of the belated honor of the prophet amongst his own people!

It would be interesting to select from the following essays and from Sumner's books passages of an almost prophetic nature; but the fact that they are such — and many are too profound in their insight to have yet attained recognition — is not at all a marvel of second-sight; it is only the inevitable emergence of the truth that makes them seem so.

The historic ascription wrung from ignorance by knowledge has been that of wizardry. But no one need commiserate Sumner because he did not receive full meed of deserved recognition while he lived. It is not that he was unappreciative of praise; he was deeply sensitive to it, contrary to the impression which not a few have derived. No man is all iron. But if one reads the Folkways with understanding he will see that its author was in possession of a point of view and of a philosophy of life which rendered him, though humanly appreciative of kindly expression, essentially independent of the commendation or blame accorded to him by his time.

No one could say that Sumner himself strove to be all things to all men. He never hesitated to strike out against the tide, and he did not fear to be alone in so doing; nor, indeed, did it affect his composure and resolution if he made no headway, but was overborne by the current.

This attracted to him, among the strong men of his time, many admirers, of whose sentiments he was probably uninformed; for instance, the late Mr. Hammond Lamont once wrote of him: No man ever had a profounder faith in the possibility of attaining to truth by study and thought, and few have had such power — which goes with strength of conviction and unassuming courage — literally to infect others with the same belief. These were the chief of the factors that made him so compelling a teacher; one of the grandest traits of young men is their generous enthusiasm for intellectual honesty and ardor, and for uncal-culating fearlessness in following conviction, once attained, wherever it leads; and Sumner fairly radiated these qualifies.

One may wish for him that he could have had the personal Edition: It is plain, from the evidence of these essays, that Sumner was always a sociologist, that is, he always reached out spontaneously to an interpretation of societal phenomena broader than the purely economic or political one.

The issues attacked in these essays arc approached with a breadth of vision which goes with a general science of society and not with any single one of its subdivisions.

Nobody who has studied the science of society with Sumner ever has any doubts about there being such a science; what persuaded us that there was one, was the actual demonstration set before us in the classroom. There was something that appealed to us as superlatively vital and enthralling, but of which no antecedent discipline had given us more than an oblique glimpse.

Until the memory of his breadth and inclusiveness of vision as to human reaction and motive has faded quite away, it will be an arduous task to prove to one of Sumner's students that there is no general science of society. No amount of mere formal analysis and intellectual fence-building can stand against demonstration. Sumner was a path-breaker by nature and circumstance; but he had his impulsion, as is the way of men, from the hand of another.

But it is wrong and shallow to class Sumner Edition: He accepted a number of Spencer's ideas — some of which were sure to appeal to him temperamentally — notably those leading to the laissez-faire attitude and to distrust of socialistic tendencies; but he parted company with Spencer in the latter author's most characteristic and fundamental point of view.

Spencer was essentially a philosopher and not a scientist, seeking in his evolutionary studies, carried through the bulky volumes of the Synthetic Philosophy , for an inclusive formula. But this is not what science is looking for, and Sumner's sympathies and respect were all for science — in particular for natural science. I feel impelled to refer in this place to the belief of some of Sumner's admirers that he made a mistake when he retired from political economy and took up the more general science of society.

As well say that there is an error in the development from the blade to the ear and the full corn in the ear. The obituary notices of a year ago recalled the Sumner of the seventies and eighties rather than the tranquil student of more recent years — Sumner the political economist rather than Edition: The popular tendency in thinking of him is to hark back to his vigor as the embattled champion of free trade and sound money, and if something is said of the latter part of his career, it is likely to have to do with his opposition to the imperialistic movement.

Popular mention of the book destined to be his last, the Folkways , is generally perfunctory and vague. Such an attitude is natural enough, for Sumner's activities of thirty years ago were such as to leave a lasting impression upon his friends, and an even more persistent recollection, if that were possible, in the minds of those whom he assailed. Many of us would be happy enough to conclude a career with the renown which Sumner enjoyed as a political economist, especially if we include several substantial volumes on economic subjects, published in the later nineties and taken by some to be signs of the closing up of a lifework.

But to him the end of labors in this field merely marked the termination of one more phase of a full life. And the later and final mode was there already and had been from the beginning. I have said that Sumner was always a sociologist; this is reported to have been evident even in his clerical period, but more definitely it dates, as has been remarked, from bis acquaintance with Spencer.

For he had read The Study of Sociology at the time of its publication in the early seventies, and used frequently to mention the sense of intellectual assent and emancipation which broke over him upon making acquaintance with this and the larger sociological works of Spencer.

His interest in the general science steadily increased, his second inspiration dating from the reading, in the late eighties, of Juhus Lippert's Kulturgeschichte. Many, I say, have regretted this change, but it was inevitable; the only legitimate regret is that he did not live to reap in full from the sowing of a lifetime — he himself wished that he had been able to surrender political economy sooner. For his interests had outgrown the sub-science and reached out toward the more comprehensive study of the life of society in all its phases.

The idea that Sumner's career was over, when, in the early nineties, he retired from political economy, has always been a source of irritation to the men who worked with him in his latter years. As a matter of fact, some of us had been taken to his study and had viewed with amazement the serried rows of classified notes on anthropology and the science of society, and we knew what not many outsiders did, that the old-time Edition: Equipped linguistically, as I shall later describe, for the collection of materials, he had plunged into the field marked off by Tylor, Lubbock, Spencer, and others, and had read an incredible number of books, journals, and other sources.

The first public indication of this research, and of his long reflection upon its results, was the appearance, in , of Folkways, a Study of the Socioloyical Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals. I cannot go into this publication except to say as bearing upon what immediately precedes that it has astonished scholars by the range of its survey over a field to which the author had been able to give exclusive attention for so comparatively short a time. The bibliography of this book covers fifteen closely printed pages, and yet includes scarcely any titles of systematic works, and practically no references to the author's extensive economic reading.

To his fellow-scientists Folkways revealed the fact that Sumner's scholarly labors, under conditions of ill-health and of declining strength, had in later years even surpassed those of his prime. Further, and more important, it is thought by many that Folkways represents a fundamental step in the development of any sound science of society. It is entirely regrettable that the latter could not have been completed, but if a choice could have been made, it would have been better that Folkways should receive the preference.

Since its publication the scientific recognition accorded to it has been steadily increasing. What place it will finally make for itself cannot yet be said; but no other of Professor Sumner's books has approached it in profundity and in lasting importance. Like Darwin, Sumner was an indefatigable collector of facts. His industry was truly discouraging to those about him.

Steadily, relentlessly, day by day, year in and year out, he explored his literature until the sum of his readings was almost incredible; a friend, he told me, asked him how he had ever found time to read the multitude of books and articles referred to in Folkways , and he had answered that he did not himself know.

And his bibliographies were never padded by the inclusion of matter which he had only scanned; nor were the references to publications in the more remote foreign languages second-hand or gotten by way of a translator and then listed as from personal reading.

As bearing on the industry and the insatiable scientific curiosity of the man, his attainment of control over languages is extraordinary evidence. The excellent Balbus may have begun Greek at seventy, but among moderns such a display of energy and industry at middle age is sufficiently remarkable.

It should not be forgotten that Sumner, as his maiden publication witnesses, was a good Hebrew scholar, and that he knew Greek and Latin well. So that his control of languages, though he used to say that he was not quick at learning them, extended to some thirteen or fourteen; and of these he had an exact and precise grammatical control. It may be added that at about the same time he was acquiring a knowledge of calculus in order to see for himself what there was in mathematical economics.

And all this while writing, lecturing, teaching a heavy schedule, and taking a leading part in faculty labors. One of the characteristics of Sumner's mode comes out quite unmistakably in his essays; and that is his simplicity and clearness.

He struck straight at the heart of a matter. He used to say that there were three questions to be asked about any production: How do you know it? Upon the last inquiry he laid particular emphasis; but, granted that there was any use in doing a piece of work, he was keen about his other two criteria: He used to prune the theses written under him of verbiage and slash out inexact expressions, usually making careful emendations, until the pages were scarcely recognizable.

For himself, he abjured latinity and chose the tersest and most rugged of Anglo-Saxon terms, using, for an extreme example, a word like leech-craft in place of a more indirect and ponderous term.

His own clarity and epigrammatic expression were probably a reflection of his own nature, for he spoke simply and vigorously, using homely phrases that stuck in the mind — he certainly got so that he thought in a way corresponding to this graphical, forceful phraseology. But as qualities of style he also recognized and cultivated brevity and curt precision; in his collections are several envelopes filled with slips of paper, such as he used to carry about in his pocket for jotting, covered with tersely expressed thought on a variety of topics.

His original sketch of an essay or part of a book, at least in his latter years, was likely to contain strings of short sentences, which he then pieced together to some extent in his many re-writings. The volleys of short sentences in some of his writings — especially those originally in lecture-form — are unquestionably a literary defect, however much the avoidance of involution may conduce to clearness. He grew ever more impatient of verbosity in writing and of vagueness in thought.

Some have said that Sumner's clarity was due to the fact that he never saw but one side to a question, and therefore was not bothered by the need of hedging and shading. It certainly conduces to clarity to see an issue in that way; but it would not be fair to one who has stood to so many as a champion and exponent of fairness to let this offhand version go unchallenged.

The Commencement orator of , when Sumner received the Yale doctorate of laws, said: He was always teaching the elements of social science to beginners, whether they sat in his classes or not; and in the teaching of the elements dogmatism is necessary. Any teacher who knows his business is aware that some well-defined standpoint must be gained before the balancing of theories can be profitably begun. I do not mean to say that Sumner did not thoroughly believe in what he said; he was intellectually honest to the extent of refusing to support in debate the easier, more plausible, but to him wrong side of a question.

His flatly stated opinions were the result of long study; what he presented was, as it were, the building without the scaffolding. This could readily be seen by his more advanced students, for in his graduate classes he opened up to us his doubts and perplexities in the frankest manner; and no one could talk with him as man to man without becoming aware that he held all his scientific opinions open to revision. His mind was essentially hospitable to new truth; but pending its emergence he clung with great loyalty to what he regarded as already demonstrated.

Sumner's attitude toward his profession was marked by a certain austerity. He would sometimes regret that he had not gone into law, but was never apologetic as respects his profession, though he used in private to joke about it in a grim sort of way. This quality of austerity was especially happy in a man who stood for sociology; for if any modern science needs the austere exponent, it is precisely that one.

Don't be a damn fool! He had comparatively Edition: There is too much else to do. This whole attitude of austerity bespoke the high esteem in which he held the subject of the science of society; he regarded it as of an importance so great as not to admit of any treatment save the most careful and conscientious. The result was that his utterances in the classroom were marked by a seriousness, almost a severity, which was relieved only by the recurrent play of a grim humor and a picturesque and stinging satire.

He brought to these lectures, as I have said above, a manner, matter, and method to which we had never been introduced. The manner was authoritative and compelling, and was never tainted by the slightest sensationalism, whatever distortions of his sayings may have reached the press; and it was marked by a most delicate propriety of expression, for this powerful man had, as respects sensitiveness and purity, the mind of a woman. The matter was rich and thought-enkindling.

The method was direct and unadorned, the embodiment of the conviction that truth plainly set forth would come to its own.

There was no placation of the hearer, no device to hold attention, no oratory. To this figure of the man the words he spoke seemed entirely congruous; and as one who sat under Sumner reads the essays Edition: Many of us have enjoyed in times past the occasional essay of Professor Snmner, and have wished that we could have it convenlently at hand, either for our own re-reading or that we might the more readily introduce a friend to a sturdy and dauntless personality in the world of thought.

It is in response mainly to desires of this order that the present collection has been assembled. I am aware that an occasional favorite will not be found here; some will seek in vain for the haunting phrase or pungent, half-remembered epigram that he would gladly con again. A great deal of Sumner's writing was in the form of short articles, hot from the forge, in newspapers and magazines; but all of these could not be collected and included in the present volume.

His famous retort to the youthful socialist — to which no reply was forthcoming — was hard to leave out; so was the laconic Foreword to Professor Curler's Lynch Law , where Sumner says of lynching, in his characteristic way: The badness of the victim is not an element in the case at all. Torture and burning are forbidden, not because the victim is not bad enough, but because we are too good.

As arranged, the following seventeen essays fall under three main heads, both topicwise and, to a large degree, chronologically as well. To these groups is added a single essay on American colleges, dating from and constituting in the main an attack on the then preferred position of the classical studies, but including much that is of a more than local or temporary value.

The better to preserve their character, certain of these essays have been left in their original lecture-form. The date given at the head of each essay will indicate its setting and thus clear up local references that occur. All of Sumner's sociological writings exhibit the strong, sane mind which many have followed admiringly in the economic and political field, traversing the broadest and most comprehensive phases of social life.

The Status of Women and Witcbcraft are really abbreviated chapters, originally intended for Folkways , as the preface to that volume indicates. The whole of the unfinished magnum opus , on the Science of Society , was to be re-written upon the basic idea of the mores; for Sumner regarded these as the germ and matrix of all societal institutions.

Anyone who knew Sumner personally, or through his writings, will realize that his fundamentals of societal life would be simple and profound, non-metaphysical, and based upon the quintessence of common sense. The Folkways is a repository of shrewd observation and epigrammatic statement, based upon broad scholarship, clear vision, and ripe wisdom. It can be read by the scholar with the scholar's profit; by the layman with the result of enrichment of thought and life; and by any former student of Sumner, whoever he may be, with all that others may get, and, in addition, with the impressions which attend the raising of a host of memories — such memories as throng to the mind when it recalls the quickening influence of the loved and honored.

It has seemed to me worth while to show from the history of civilization just what war has done and has not done for the welfare of mankind. In the eighteenth century it was assumed that the primitive state of mankind was one of Arcadian peace, joy, and contentment. In the nineteenth century the assumption went over to the other extreme — that the primitive state was one of universal warfare. This, like the former notion, is a great exaggeration.

Man in the most primitive and uncivilized state known to us does not practice war all the time; he dreads it; he might rather be described as a peaceful animal. Real warfare comes with the collisions of more developed societies.

If we turn to facts about the least civilized men we find proofs that they are not warlike and do not practice war if they can help it. The Australians have no idea. Their fights do not lead to slaughter or spoils or other consequences of victory. Quarrels between tribes are sometimes settled by a single combat between chiefs. They have no political organization, so there can be no war for power. An Englishman who knew them well said that he knew of serious wounds, but he had known of but one death from their affrays.

Neither are the Papuans of New Guinea warlike in all parts of the island. We are told Edition: Perhaps the converse would be true: We are not astonished to hear that they develop excessive tyranny and cruelty to those who are weaker than themselves, especially to women, and even to their mothers.

This is attributed in great part to head-hunting and cannibalism. In general they know the limits of their own territory and observe them, but they quarrel about women. The Chatham Islanders sometimes quarreled over booty won in pursuing seals or whales, but they had a law that the first drop of blood ended the fight. Livingstone says that the tribes in the interior of South Africa, where no slave trade existed, seldom had any war except about cattle, and some tribes refused to keep cattle in order not to offer temptation.

In one case only had he heard of war for any other reason; three brothers, Barolongs, fought over one woman, and their tribe had remained divided, up to the time of writing, into three parties. During his residence in the Bechuana country he never saw unarmed men strike each other. They quarrel with words, but generally both parties burst into a laugh and that ends it. A Spanish priest, writing an account, in , of the Aurohuacos of Colombia, 5 says that they have no weapons of offense or defense.

If two quarrel they go out to a big rock or tree and each with his staff beats the rock or tree with vituperations. The one whose staff breaks first is the victor; then they embrace and return home as friends. Even our American Indians, who appear in Edition: Wampum strings and belts were associated with peace-pacts and with prayers for peace. In contrast with these cases we find others of extreme warlikeness which account for the current idea that primitive men love war and practice it all the time.

But if we examine the cases of peacefulness or unwarlike-hess which have been cited, we see that only two or three seem to present evidence of Arcadian peace and simplicity, such as, in the imagination of the eighteenth century philosophers, characterized men in a state of nature. Probably if we had fuller knowledge these few instances would be much modified. What we see is that men have always quarreled. The cases which have been selected are some of them also those of people who have been defeated, broken, and cowed down.

Another set of examples consists of those in which abstinence from war is due to cowardice, and with it go the vices of cowardice — tyranny and cruelty to the weak.

These cases are calculated to delight the hearts of the advocates of strenuosity. What our testimonies have in common is this: When we undertake to talk about primitive society we should conceive of it as consisting of petty groups scattered separately over a great territory. I speak of groups because I want a term of the widest significance. The group may consist, as it does amongst Australians and Bushmen, of a man with one or possibly two wives and their children, or it may have a few more members, or it may be a village group as in New Guinea, or a tribe or part of a tribe as amongst our own Indians.

It is to Edition: Every individual excludes every other in the competition of life unless they can by combining together win more out of nature by joint effort than the sum of what they could win separately. This combination is what makes groups and brings about industrial organization. When a man and woman unite in the most elementary group known, they do it for economic reasons, because they can carry on the struggle for existence better together than apart.

As soon as it breaks, the fractions begin to compete with each other. If by greater culture a higher organization becomes possible, two groups coalesce by intermarriage or conquest, competition gives way to combination again, and the bigger unit enters into competition with other composite units.

Thus at all stages throughout the history of civilization competition and combination forever alternate with each other. These groups are independent of each other, their size being determined by their mode of life, because the number who can live together economically is limited by the possibilities of the food-quest. When a group outgrows this limit, it breaks up and scatters. The fact of former association is long remembered and there is a bond of kinship and alliance which may at times draw former associates together again for festivals and religious observances, but after they separate the tendency is to become entirely independent and to fall under the type just described; viz.

Their remoter relationship does not keep them from quarreling Edition: In the book of Judges 1 we see cases of war between tribes of Israel in spite of the higher bond which united them with each other and separated them from the Gentiles. All the members of one group are comrades to each other, and have a common interest against every other group. These two sentiments are perfectly consistent with each other; in fact, they necessarily complement each other. Let us see why that is so.

War arises from the competition of life, not from the struggle for existence. In the struggle for existence a man is wrestling with nature to extort from her the means of subsistence.

It is when two men are striving side by side in the struggle for existence, to extort from nature the supplies they need, that they come into rivalry and a collision of interest with each other takes place. This collision may be light and unimportant, if the supplies are large and the number of men small, or it may be harsh and violent, if there are many men striving for a small supply. This collision we call the competition of life. Of course men are in the competition of life with beasts, reptiles, insects, and plants — in short, with all organic forms; we will, however, confine our attention to men.

The greater or less intensity of the competition of life is a fundamental condition of human existence, and the competition arises between those ultimate unit Edition: The members of the unit group work together.

The Australian or Bushman hunter goes abroad to seek meat food, while the woman stays by the fire at a trysting place, with the children, and collects plant food. They cooperate in the struggle for existence, and the size of the group is fixed by the number who can work together to the greatest advantage under their mode of life. Such a group, therefore, has a common interest. It must have control of a certain area of land; hence it comes into collision of interest with every other group.

The competition of life, therefore, arises between groups, not between individuals, and we see that the members of the in-group are allies and joint-partners in one interest while they are brought into antagonism of interest with all outsiders.

It is the competition of life, therefore, which makes war, and that is why war always has existed and always will. It is in the conditions of human existence. In the cases which have been cited of nature peoples who have no war, we have heard mention already of division of hunting grounds and of quarrels which arise about them.

Wherever there is no war, there we find that there is no crowding, as among the scattered Eskimo, or that, after long fighting, treaties and agreements have been made to cover all relations of interest between the groups. These we call peace-pacts, and it is evident that they consist in conventional agreements creating some combination between the groups which are parties to the agreement. Each group must regard every other as a possible enemy on account of the antagonism of interests, and so it views every other group with suspicion and distrust, although actual hostilities occur only on specific occasion.

Every member of another group is a stranger; he may be admitted as a guest, in which case rights and security Edition: We can now see why the sentiments of peace and cooperation inside are complementary to sentiments of hostility outside. It is because any group, in order to be strong against an outside enemy, must be well disciplined, harmonious, and peaceful inside; in other words, because discord inside would cause defeat in battle with another group.

Therefore the same conditions which made men warlike against outsiders made them yield to the control of chiefs, submit to discipline, obey law, cultivate peace, and create institutions inside. The notion of rights grows up in the in-group from the usages established there securing peace. There was a double education, at the same time, out of the same facts and relations. There are two codes of morals and two sets of mores, one for comrades inside and the other for strangers outside, and they arise from the same interests.

Against outsiders it was meritorious to kill, plunder, practice blood revenge, and to steal women and slaves; but inside none of these things could be allowed because they would produce discord and weakness. Hence, in the in-group, law under the forms of custom and taboo and institutions had to take the place of force. Every group was a peace-group inside and the peace was sanctioned by the ghosts of the ancestors who had handed down the customs and taboos.

Against outsiders religion sanctioned and encouraged war; for the ghosts of the ancestors, or the gods, would rejoice to see their posterity and worshipers once more defeat, slay, plunder, and enslave the ancient enemy.

The Eskimos of Bering Strait think it wrong to steal from people in the same village or tribe; a thief is publicly reproached and forced to return the thing stolen. The sentiment of cohesion, internal comradeship, and devotion to the in-group, which carries with it a sense of superiority to any out-group and readiness to defend the interests of the in-group against the out-group, is technically known as ethnocentrism.

It is really the sentiment of patriotism in all its philosophic fullness; that is, both in its rationality and in its extravagant exaggeration. The Mohaves and the Seri of southern California will have no relations of marriage or trade with any other people; they think themselves superior.

The Mohaves are wild and barbarous and the Seri are on a lower grade of civilization than any other tribe in America. Therefore, we see that ethnocentrism has nothing to do with the relative grade of civilization of any people.

He burst into a rhapsody about Greenland. We find then that there are two sentiments in the minds of the same men at the same time. These have been called militancy and industrialism. The latter term does not seem to be a good one and it is not apt until we reach high civilization; what we want is a term to express the peace sentiment in antithesis to militancy, but industrialism has obtained currency and it has this much justification, even for savage life, that, inside the group, the needs of life must be provided for by productive labor.

Generally that is left to the women and the men practice militarism. It would not be possible for neighboring groups to remain really isolated from each other. One has in its territory stone or salt, water or fuel, limited fruits, melons, nuts, fish, or perhaps other natural materials which the others need.

They also take wives from each other, generally, but not always. Hence arise treaties of commercium and connubium , which bring about a middle state of things between war and peace. These treaties are the origin of international law. A comparison of modern municipal and international law will show that the difference between the relations of members of the in-group with each other, and of the groups with each other, still exists.

If now we turn back to the question with which I started, whether men began in a state of peace or a state of war, we see the answer. They began with both together.

Which preponderated is a question of the intensity of the competition of life at the time. When that competition was intense, war was frequent and fierce, the weaker were exterminated or absorbed by the stronger, the internal discipline of the conquerors became stronger, chiefs got more absolute power, laws became more stringent, religious observances won greater authority, and so the whole societal system was more firmly integrated.

On the other hand, when there were no close or powerful neighbors, there was little or no war, the internal organization remained lax and feeble, chiefs had little power, and a societal system scarcely existed. The four great motives which move men to social activity are hunger, love, vanity, and fear of superior powers. If we search out the causes which have moved men to war we find them under each of these motives or interests.

Men have fought for hunting grounds, for supplies which are locally limited and may be monopolized, for commerce, for slaves, and probably also for human flesh. These motives come under hunger, or the food-quest, or more widely under the economic effort to win subsistence.

They have fought for and on account of women, which we must put partly under love, although the women were wanted chiefly as laborers and so, along with the slaves, would come under the former head. They have fought to win heads, or scalps, or other trophies, and for honor or dignity, or purely for glory; this comes under the operation of vanity.

They have fought for blood revenge, to prevent or punish sorcery, and to please their gods; these motives belong under the fear of superior powers. It was reserved for modern Edition: Is there anything grand or noble in any of these motives of war? But we must remember that the motives from which men act have nothing at all to do with the consequences of their action.

Where will you find in history a case of a great purpose rationally adopted by a great society and carried through to the intended result and then followed by the expected consequences in the way of social advantage? You can find no such thing. Men act from immediate and interested motives like these for which they have waged war, and the consequences come out of the forces which are set loose.

The consequences may be advantageous or disadvantageous to men. The story of these acts and consequences makes up human history. So it has been with war. While men were fighting for glory and greed, for revenge and superstition, they were building human society. They were acquiring discipline and cohesion; they were learning cooperation, perseverance, fortitude, and patience.

Those are not savage virtues; they are products of education. War forms larger social units and produces states; of the North American Indians, those had the intensest feeling of unity who were the most warlike.

It is the most potent excitant known to all the faculties. What appalls us, however, is the frightful waste of this process of evolution by war — waste of life and waste of capital. It is this waste which has made the evolution of civilization so slow.

Here, then, let us turn back and see how the peace-element develops alongside the war-element. This is why the founding of Israel took precedence over the welfare of the Jewish people. People complain that Israel controls the U. But, Israel is just an instrument of the central bankers who control both. Sometimes directly, sometimes indirectly, this Israel-Saudi bloc sustains Al-Qaeda and, to a somewhat lesser degree, the Islamic State. Britain obtaining protectorate status over Palestine Israel and the important oil-producing areas, especially Iraq.

Their protectorate over Palestine set the stage for their planned later creation in that area of a Jewish homeland, which intent was proclaimed to British Zionists in a letter from Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour to Walter Lord Rothschild, representing the English Federation of Zionists. The British intent was to project their control into the oil-laden Middle East by creating a Jewish-dominated Palestine, beholden to Britain for survival, and surrounded by a pack of squabbling, balkanized Arab states.

As the pre-eminent Zionist in Britain, Sir Edmond Rothschild 's proposal for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine served major economic interests of the Rothschilds and of the British Empire, in that several years prior, Rothschild bought the Suez Canal for the British, and it was the primary transport route for Russian oil.

Palestine, thus, would be a vital landmass as a protectorate for British and Rothschild imperial-economic interests. Patricia Goldstone in her book "Aaronsohn's Maps". Its goal was to establish a Jewish-Masonic state in the Turkish province of Palestine Initially, British Jewish Masonic families like the Rothschilds and Montefiores provided the capital to build the infrastructure for the anticipated wave of immigration.

However, luring the Jews to Israel was proving difficult. They liked European life too much to abandon it. So Europe was to be turned into a nightmare for the Jews. There is a fanatical certainty abroad that there is only one truth and that Israel is the sole custodian of it. No distinction is made between the Jews of the world and Israel, and not even between the Israeli government and Israel.

Israeli statesmen and their policies are assumed to be inviolate and above criticism. There is a frightening intolerance of opinions differing from those of the majority, a complete disregard of reason, and a yielding to the emotions of a stampeding herd.

Edward Griffin Descent Into Slavery? This system was to be controlled in a feudalist fashion by the central banks of the world acting in concert, by secret agreements arrived at in frequent private meetings and conferences.

The apex of the system was to be the Bank for International Settlements [BIS] in Basel, Switzerland, a private bank owned and controlled by the world's central banks which were themselves private corporations Each central bank sought to dominate its government by its ability to control Treasury loans, to manipulate foreign exchanges, to influence the level of economic activity in the country, and to influence cooperative politicians by subsequent economic rewards in the business world.

Carroll Quigley in his book "Tragedy and Hope".

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Critical legal studies (CLS) is a school of critical theory that first emerged as a movement in the United States during the s. Critical Legal Studies adherents claim that laws are used to maintain the status quo of society's power structures; it is also held that the law is a codified form of society's biases against marginalized lossweightcbrqz.gqe wide variation in the opinions of critical. About the Legal Studies Bachelor's Degree. In your core legal studies degree courses, you'll examine the organization, function, and processes of the lawmaking institutions in the American legal system, as well as the role of the paralegal in the legal system and the governing rules of legal ethics.

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